One interesting thing about the article is that it says that 220 people were living on Usando (千山島에 二百二十名) and about 1,000 people were living on "Jukdo" (竹島에 約 千名), which is pronounced as "Takeshima" in Japanese. However, it also seems to be saying something about Japanese on Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), so it is possible that the Takeshima in the article was not referring to Ulleungdo. It is also possible that there was another "Usando" because I think I also remember their being another Usando on the West Coast of Korea.
Anyway, I would like some help in translating this article, which is not very clear. There may even be a record of the Japanese article it referred to, which would probably have also been published in March 1903. This may be an important piece of evidence, so I hope people will help me understand it. The article can also be found HERE.
Click twice to enlarge
Chapter 1: Location and Boundaries
The Korean Empire is located in the eastern part of Asia. Its neighbor to the southeast is Japan, and it borders Russian territory on the northeast. The west and north border Manchuria, and the southern border faces faces the sea. Its northern latitude stretches from 33 degrees 13 minutes to 43 degrees 2 minutes. Its eastern longitude stretches from 125 degrees 50 minutes to 130 degrees 58 minutes. The eastern point is Ulleungdo in Uldo County of North Gyeongsang Province, and the western point is at Cape Jangsan in Jangyeong County in Hwanghae Province. The the southern point is Port Moseul on the island of Jeju in South Jolla Province, and the northern point is Tomun River in North Hamgyeong Province. The area is 82,000 square ri.
Chapter 22: Scenic Communities
Uldo is the old Ulleungdo. Its northern latitude stretches from 130 degrees 45 minutes to 35 minutes. It’s eastern longitude stretches from 37 degrees 34 minutes to 31 minutes. Three peaks prop up the sky. Its area is about 504 square ri. It produces many medical herbs and much timber. Usando is southeast of here.
第一課 : 位置와 境界
大韓帝國의 位置는 亞細亞洲의 東部에 在하니 其境界는 同南은 日本을 鄰하고 東北은 俄領과 接하고 西와 北은 滿洲를 界하고 南은 海를 臨하니 北緯三十三度十三分에 越하야 四十三度二分에 止하고 東經一百二十五度五十分에 越하야 百三十度 五十八分에 止하니 東은 慶尙北道 鬱島郡 鬱陵島이오 西는 黃海道長淵郡 長山串이오 南은 全羅南道 濟州島 毛瑟浦 [摹瑟浦]오 北은 咸鏡北道 土門江이니 面積이 八萬二千方里니라.
第二十二課 : 勝地 都會
鬱嶋는 古鬱陵島이니 北緯 一百三十度 四十五分으로 三十五分에 至하며 東經三十七度 三十四分으로 三十一分에 지하니 三峯이 撑空하야 地方이 約 五百四方里오 藥材와 森林이 多産하며 于山嶋는 其東南에 在하니라.
Uldo is Ulleungdo, which is in the middle of the sea about 400 ri away from Pyeonghae County’s Weolsong-po. In the third year of Gwangmu (1900), Uldo County was established and a magistrate was assigned. Its northern latitude is from 130 degrees 45 minutes to 53 minutes. Its eastern longitude is from 37 degrees 34 minutes to 31 minutes [The names for "latitude" and "longitude" are reversed.] The area is about 504 square ri. A tall mountain stands out in the center of the island. Its height is 4,000 cheok. There are no harbors on the shoreline, so it is extremely difficult for ships to tie up.
Flat ground is scarce on the whole island, but layers of fallen leaves and dried grass have accumulated and decomposed into dark, fertile soil, making it possible to have an abundant harvest without fertilizing. The annual output of soybeans, which is the island’s main product, is as much as 400 to 500 seok. The wood products include oak, paulownia, pine, and sandalwood. Grapes are also produced. On the shores, there is good production of sedum, which is clearly big. In the autumn, there are many flocks of woodcocks that are used as supplemental food. The fat is dissolved and supplied as lamp oil.
The residents of the island total about 500 families. About 300 Japanese families come to live on the island temporarily, which has caused the government to issue a standing order for them all to vacate and return home. There is a spring on the island that gushes out water that tastes slightly sour, but the island residents call it mineral water. They drink it when they are sick and it seems to have a good effect. This is the source of carbonated water.
About 300 ri to the southeast of this island is an island commonly called “Yang-ko” Island. It has an area of about thirty ri. The shoreline is indented, so it is good for anchoring fishing boats, but there is still no firewood or drinking water available, so it is uninhabited. There are many sea lions and various sea products.
鬱島는 平海郡 越松浦 四百餘里海中에 在한 鬱陵島니 光武三年에 鬱島郡을 設하고 守를 寘하니 北緯 百三十度 四十五分乃至 五十三分. 東徑三十七度 三十四分乃至 三十一分 間에 在하야. 面積이 五百四 方里許며 中央에 高山이 屹立하야 고 – 四千 尺이며 沿岸의 港灣이 無하야 船舶의 碇繫가 甚難하니라
全島에 平地가 稀少하나 其地質은 落葉枯草가 堆積腐化한 黑土를 成함으로 膏腴하야 肥料를 不施하야도 農物이 豊碩하야 主産物의 大豆는 每年産額이 四五百石에 至하며 林産에는 欅, 桐, 松, 白檀香等이 有하며 또 葡萄가 産出하며 沿海에 良好한 石菜의 産額이 亦 大하니라. 秋季에 山鷸類가 多하야 副食物을 作하며 脂肪은 溶解하야 燈油에 供給하나니라.
本島住民은 五百餘戶며 日本人 三百餘戶가 一時에 來住함으로 政府에서 退去하란 命令이 有하야 至今에 盡歸하니라 島中의 一泉이 湧出하야 其味가 微酸하나 島民이 藥水라 稱하야 疾病時에 藥餌로 服用하면 効驗이 著見하니 此는 炭酸水의 源流니라.
本島東南約三百里에 一島가 유하야 俗稱 “양고”島라 云하니 長이 三十餘里오 沿岸이 屈曲하야 漁船의 碇泊이 便宜하나 薪材及 飮料水를 아즉 不得함으로 居人이 無하며 海馬와 各種海産이 多하니라.
Those of you who may not recognize the name "Steve Barber" may know him better as Toadface, Frogmouth, Wedgie, Zippertrout, or one of the other aliases he used to post under before getting caught. (See HERE.)
Steve had claimed that he had no affiliation with Koreans and did all the research on his own. Here is what he wrote back in 2006:
Kanganese, don’t lump me together with other Koreans on the Dokdo issue. I have done my studies on this subject on my own. My only connection with Koreans on this is for gathering maps and documents. Unlike Ponta and Pacifist I’m not an errand-boy for my local political organization such as Shimane Prefecture. I’m not Korean nor am I a part of a political movement like Ponta.The following email was discovered on the anti-Japanese Web site "Killzap.cafe," a name that looks very similar to "Killjap.cafe":
Korea's "Maeil Kyeongje" newspaper has also written an article about Steve Barber HERE, which says that Steve Barber's college major was computer studies, but that he came to teach English in Korea, where he became interested in the Dokdo issue two years ago.
From: steve barber [mailto:email@example.com]Sent: Thursday, August 31,
2006 1:01 AMTo: firstname.lastname@example.orgSubject: RE:
From: steve barber [mailto:email@example.com]Sent: Thursday, August 31, 2006 1:01 AMTo: firstname.lastname@example.orgSubject: RE: Hanmaumy
Dr Mr Cho:
I went onto Hanmaumy’s website and just by the visual images I saw I can say his website is the best I’ve ever seen !! I’m very impressed.
The problem is that it is all in Korean language. Koreans already believe Dokdo is Korean land so Hanmaumy is in a sense wasting his time. We must get this valuable information out to the global community. If the Dokdo issue ever goes to the ICJ it is absolutely necessary that all of the related information be available to the public in English.
Mr Cho I must stress these days there are more Japanese working with foreigners promoting Takeshima is Japanese and they are doing it in English while working with idiots like Gerry Bevers. Like after WW2 Korea isn’t getting its message out there about Dokdo.
That being said, Mr Lovmo’s site is up and running and I’ve been working on my own to try to gather information and translate it but to be honest my lack of ability in Korean language makes it impossible to gather images on some of these Korean National Archives Websites because they are totally in Korean.
We should use Mr Lovmo’s site because it is already quite popular and it has the greatest amount of exposure on the English/Foreign Internet.
Please me must work together to get the message out there. I will do my best. In addtion please tell Hanmaumy I am going to gather images from his website and translate as well as I can for Mark.
I would love to meet both of you someday.
It also says that his Korean is not very good, so his 34-year-old Korean wife has been translating into English the Japanese and Korean documents for him.
The article quoted Steve Barber as saying that his consistent position has been that Dokdo was Korean territory in the past, is Korean territory now, and must be Korean territory in the future. (Well, I guess he can no longer claim that he is a neutral party.)
Anyway, for someone who needs his Korean wife to translate the Japanese and Korean documents for him, Steve Barber seems pretty confident in his belief that Dokdo is historically Korean territory. Well, maybe if I were a 44-year-old man with a 34-year-old Korean wife, I might start supporting Korea's claim, as well.
Now that Yonhap has reported on Mark Lovmo, an elementary school teacher in Minnesota who needed a Korean friend to translate for him, and Steve Barber, an Canadian English teacher in Korea who needs his Korean wife to translate for him, I wonder who will be the next Korean-illiterate, Dokdo-loving foreigner that Yonhap News finds to interview?
Here are more Korean newspaper and news sites reporting the Steve Barber article:
If one of you will translate and post on the Ulleungdo section of 田淵友彦's 1905 geography text 韓國新地理 for me, then I will translate the Korean version for you. The links to the relevant pages are "07" and "08" in the link I provided.
Is it a deal?
- Renovate a shelter for fishermen on Dokdo
- Develop infrastruction on Ulleungdo
- Begin joint projects to protect the enviroment around Dokdo
- Promote international awareness of Japan's repeated claims over the islets
- Rocks, breakwaters, and a museum dedicated to Ahn Yong-bok (who the Korea Times thinks defended Korea's ownership of Dokdo in in the 18th century instead of the 17th)
- Strengthen education and promotional actitivities about Dokdo
- Expand military drills and beef up the security of Dokdo by deploying more patrol ships near the islets
South Korea has a million-man North Korean army on its northern border, yet she seems to be more worried about an invasion of Dokdo.
The passage was a report from Jo Seok-myeong (趙錫命), who had been sent to Gangwon Province (江原道 - 강원도) to inspect the coastal defenses of the Yeongdong (嶺東 - 영도) region. In his report, he said that the people in the ports there told him that there was an island visible to the east of Ulleungdo that was on the Japanese border. The following is the relevant passage, Professor Kim Ho-dong's translation, and my English translation:
Now, HERE is the translation of the passage by Korea's Korea's National Institute of Korean History (국사편찬위원회) and my English translation:
辛酉江原道御使趙錫命 論嶺東海防疎虞狀略曰 詳聞浦人言 平海蔚珍 距鬱陵島最近 船路無少礙 鬱陵之東 島嶼相望 接于倭境.
포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, '평해平海), 울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에 섬이 보이는데 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다'고 하였습니다.
I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. Visible to the east of Ulleung is an island that is on the Japanese border."
In a footnote on the translation in his book (pp. 119 - 120) , Professor Kim Ho-dong wrote the following:
辛酉江原道御使趙錫命 論嶺東海防疎虞狀略曰 詳聞浦人言 平海蔚珍 距鬱陵島最近 船路無少礙 鬱陵之東 島嶼相望 接于倭境.
“포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, ‘평해(平海)·울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애(障礙)가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에는 섬이 서로 잇달아 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다.’고 하였습니다.
I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. East of Ulleungdo, islands connect to each other to reach the Japanese border.
Professor Kim does not offer an explanation for the mistranslation by Korea's National Institute of Korean History, but I think they mistranslated it because they realized the passage supported Japan's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo). The passage was essentially saying that the island visible to the east of Ulleungdo was Japanese territory. In those days, a country's farthermost islands represented its border. Apparently, the Korean fishermen had seen Japanese fishing boats coming from the direction of the island and assumed it was Japanese.
그런데 국편의 최근 번역에는 이것을 "포인(浦人)의 말을 상세히 듣건대, ‘평해(平海)·울진(蔚珍)은 울릉도(鬱陵島)와 거리가 가장 가까와서 뱃길에 조금도 장애(障礙)가 없고, 울릉도 동쪽에는 섬이 서로 잇달아 왜경(倭境)에 접해 있다.’고 하였습니다'라고 잘못 번역하고 있다.
However, the National Institute of Korean History has recently been mistranslating the passage as, "I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. East of Ulleungdo, islands connect to each other to reach the Japanese border."
If the Koreans had believed the island to be Korean territory, then they would not have referred to it as being "on the Japanese border," but, instead, would have referred to it with an expression similar to "接于我國境" (우리 국경에 접해있다), which means "on our country's border."
If you look at the full passage, you can see that the Korean official was worried about Japanese territory being so close to Korea, which was why he was urging the government to strengthen defenses in the Gangwondo area.
Gangwon Provincial inspector Jo Seok-myeong (趙錫命) discussed the neglected coastal defenses in the Yeongdong region. Here is a summary:I listened carefully to the people in the ports (浦人) who said, "Pyeonghae (平海) and Uljin (蔚珍) are closest to Ulleungdo, and there are no obstructions along the sea route. Visible to the east of Ulleung is an island that is on the Japanese border." In 1708 and 1712, strange-looking ships drifted to the borders of Goseong (高城) and Ganseong (杆城), so we know that Japanese ships frequently come and go. The government, however, says that the vast sea is a barrier, so there is no need to worry, but how can we be sure that a future war will not break out in the Yeongdong region instead of the Yeongnam region? We cannot allow even a little delay in taking measures to be thoroughly prepared.
In accordance with the request, the Myodang (廟堂) requested that Gangwondo be reprimanded to cracked down on its military officials.
于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里 新羅時 恃險不服 智證王十二年 異斯夫爲何瑟羅州軍主 謂于山國人愚悍 難以威服可以計服 乃多以木造獅子 分載戰艦 抵其國誑之曰 汝若不服 則卽放此獸踏殺之 國人恐懼來降 高麗太祖十三年 其島人 使白吉土豆 獻方物 毅宗十三年 王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民 遣溟州道監倉金柔立往視 柔立回奏云 島中有大山 從山頂向東行至海一萬餘步 向西行一萬三千餘步 向南行一萬五千餘步 向北行八千餘步 有村落基址七所 或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡藁本石南草 後崔忠獻獻議 以武陵土壤膏沃 多珍木海錯 遣使往觀之 有屋基破礎宛然 不知何代人居也 於是移東郡民以實之 及使還多以珍木海錯進之 後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟 人多物故 因還其居民 本朝太宗時 聞流民逃其島者甚多 再命三陟人金麟雨 爲按撫使 刷出空其地 麟雨言土地沃饒 竹大如杠 鼠大如猫 桃核大於升 凡物稱是世宗二十年 遣縣人萬戶南顥 卒數百人 往搜逋民盡俘 金丸等七十餘人而還 其地遂空 成宗二年 有告別有三峯島者 乃遣朴宗元往覓之 因風濤不得泊而還 同行一船泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚 回啓云 島中無居民矣以上見てきたように、1530年の「新增東國輿地勝覽」は、韓国側の領有権主張を裏打ちするものではありません。
于山島 鬱陵島は時に武陵、或いは羽陵とも呼ばれ、2島は県の真東の海中に在る。3つの峰が及業（きゅうぎょう）として空を支え、南の峰はやや低い。 天候が清明であれば山頂の樹木及び山麓の海岸を歴々見ることができる。風が良ければ2日で到達できる。一説に于山と鬱陵は本来1つの島で100里（約40 キロメートル）四方ある。
新羅の時代、大変険しい土地で、征服するのが難しいと思われたが、智證王十二年 (512 A.D.)に、異斯夫という者が何瑟羅州軍の長となり、こう言った。「于山人は無知で野蛮なので、武力で征服するのは困難である。そこで、知略を施さなければならない。」彼は恐ろしく獰猛そうな猛獣を木で作り、複数の軍の船に分載して島へ行き、住民へこう告げた。「もし服従しなければ、猛獣達を島へ放してお前達を食わせてしまうぞ。」島の住民は、恐れおののいて出てきて、服従した。
高麗太祖十三年(930 A.D.)に、その島の住民は白吉と土豆を使いにして貢納した。毅宗十三年(1159 A.D.)には、王は、鬱陵の土地は広大かつ肥沃で人民が居住可能であると聞き、溟州道（江原道）審察使の金柔立を派遣した。金は（島から）帰還し王にこう述べた。「島の中央に大きな山がある。頂から海岸までの距離は、東へ１万歩、西へ１万３千歩、南へ１万５千歩、北へ８千歩である。島には７つの村の跡がある。石仏像、鉄鐘、石塔もある。柴胡、蒿本、石南草が沢山自生している。」時代は下って、崔忠獻が武陵の土地は肥沃で貴重な樹木や海産物が取れると奏上したので、王が役人を派遣した。役人は人家の跡があったものの、いつ頃人が住んでいたのか判然としないが、もし東部の村人達をこの島に移住させれば、貴重な山海の物産を採集するだろう、と報告した。後に、しばしば強い雨風によって多数の犠牲者がでたので、移住民は連れ戻された。
I am not sure which photo originally appeared in the Chosun Ilbo article HERE, but the second photo is the one that now appears in the article. The difference between the two photos has been discussed on the Internet, so it is possible that the photos have been changed. Both photos are stored in the Chosun.com image database.
The Korean videos are designed to play on Korean emotions while relying on people's ignorance of the facts. That is why we see many Korean commenters here claim that Korea has a lot of evidence to support her claim on Dokdo, but then those same people are unable to explain what that evidence is.
Anyway, enjoy the video. At least, the music is nice.
Commentary on Draft Treaty by the Department of State on June 1, 1951
To follow is about New Zealand's view from the "Foreign Relations with the United States" (1951, Vol.VI pp. 1060-1061)
"In view of the need to ensure that none of the islands near
Japanis left in disputed
sovereignty, the New Zealand Government favours the precise delimitation by
latitude and longitude of the territory to be retained by
Japanas suggested in Article 1 of the 's draft. The adoption of this device could for example make it clear that the United Kingdom Habomai Islandsand Shikotan at present under Russian occupation will remain with ." Japan
(Comment-In the discussions at
Washingtonthe British agreed to drop
this proposal when the
U.S.pointed to the psychological disadvantages of seeming to fence Japanin by a continuous line around . The Japanese had objected Japan
to the British proposal when it was discussed with them in
. Tokyo willingness to U.S.
specify in the treaty that Korean territory included Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet also helped to persuade the British. As regards the Habomais and Shikotan, it has seemed more realistic, with the
USSRin occupation of the islands, not specifically to stipulate their return to .) Japan
[Lots of thanks to opp]
But this commentary is not right. The draft which
To follow is the original
- Territorial Clauses Part I.
Japanese sovereignty shall continue over all the islands and adjacent islets and rocks lying within an area bounded by a line from latitude 30°N, in a north-westerly direction to approximately latitude 33°N. 128 ° E. then northward between the islands of
Quelpart, Fukue-Shima bearing north - easterly between Korea and the island of
Tsushima, continuing in this direction with the islands of Oki-Retto to the south-east and Take Shima to the north-west curving with the coast of Honshu, then northerly skirting
Rebun Shima passing easterly through Soya Kaikyo approximately 142° E., then in
a south-easterly direction parallel to the coast of Hokkaido to 145° 30’ E.
entering Numero Kaikyo at approximately 44° 30’ N. in a south-westerly direction
to approximately 43° 45' N. and 145° 15' E., then in a south-easterly direction
to approximately 43° 35' N. 145 ' 35' E., then bearing north-easterly to
approximately 44° N., so excluding Kunashiri, and curving to the east and then
bearing south-westerly to include Shikotan at 147° 5' E., being the most
easterly point, then in a south-westerly direction with the coastlin6 towards
the Nanpo Group of Islands curving south to include Sofu-Gan (Lot's Wife) at 29°
50' N., veering to the north-west towards the coast of Honshu, then at
approximately 33° N. turning south-westerly past Shikoku to 30° N. to include
YakuShima and excluding Kuchino Shima and the Ryuku Islands south of latitude
30° North. The line above described is plotted on the map attached to the
present treaty (Annex I).(') In the case of a discrepancy between the map
attached to the textual description of the line, the latter shall prevail.
FROM:The National Archives of the United Kingdom FO371/92538,FJ1022/222
Anglo - American Meetings on Japanese Peace Treaty.
Summary Record of First Meeting held in
Mr. C.H. Johnston
Mr. G.G. Fitzmurice
Mr. F.S. Tomlison
Mr. K.R.C. Pridham
Mr. John M. Allison
Brig. Gen. Conrad Snow
Mr. Robert A. Fearly
Mr. Noel Hemmendinger
Mr. C. Arnold Fraleigh
Mr. Douglas Overton
Mr. Allison said that the American View was that our defining of the Japanese boundaries would have a bad psychological effect on the Japanese and emphasize the contraction of their country. The Americans would prefer a wording which emphasized the full sovereignty of Japan such territory as we should leave her and, exclude by name from her sovereignty and only such territory and islands as might be necessary
to avoid confusion.
Anglo - American Meetings on Japanese Peace Treaty.
Summary Record of Seventh Meeting held at 10.30 a.m. on the 2nd
Mr. C.H. Johnston
Mr. G.G. Fitzmurice
Mr. F.A. Vallat
Mr. F.S. Tomlison
Mr. K.R.C. Pridham
Mr. John M. Allison
Brig. Gen. Conrad Snow
Mr. Robert A. Fearly
UNITED STATES CHAPTER III
Both Delegations agreed that it would be preferable to specify
only the territory over which
was renouncing sovereignty. In Japan
this connection, United States Article 3 would require the insertion of the
three islands Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet. It was left undecided whether
the sentence in British Article 2 requiring Japan to recognize whatever
settlement the United Nations might make in Korea should be maintained or not.
It was agreed that further consideration should be given to the drafting of the
sentence dealing with
’s renunciation of her mandates. Japan
WASHINGTON, D. C.
2nd May, 1951
FROM:The National Archives of the United Kingdom FO371/92547,FJ1022/376
Japanrenounces all rights, titles and claims to Korea(including Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet)', [ and the Pesca-dores]; and also all rights, titles and claims in connection with the mandate system, [or based on any past activity of Japanese nationals in the Antarctic area]. Formosa Japanaccepts the action of the United Nations Security Council of April 2, 1947, in relation to extending the trusteeship system to Pacific .Islands formerly under mandate to . ( Japan reserves position on passages between square brackets.) U.K.
(Foreign Relations of the United States; 1951 Vol.VI p.p. 1024-1026)
The books also included a map of Joseon's eight provinces called the "Paldo Chongdo" (八道總圖), which means "Complete Map of the Eight Provinces." There were also maps of each of the individual provinces for a total of nine maps. Together these maps were referred to as the "Dongram-do" (東覽圖 - Maps of the Dongram). The above map is the "Paldo Chongdo."
Evidence for Korea's Claim on Dokdo?
The Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungram and its attached maps are supposed to be some of Korea's most important evidence supporting their territorial claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) because Koreans say that not only do the books mention an island near Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 - 울릉도) called "Usando" (于山島 - 우산도), which Koreans claim was the old Korean name for Dokdo, but two of the maps in the geography books show Usando as Korean territory. However, the problem with the Korean claim is that there is no evidence that Usando was Dokdo. In fact the map Koreans claim to be one of their most important pieces of supporting evidence for their claim on Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) shows Usando (于山島) as an island due west of Ulleungdo (鬱陵島), but Dokdo is ninety-two kilometers to the southeast.
Why did the 1530 map show Usando (于山島) due west of Ulleungdo, when, in fact, there are no islands off Ulleungdo's west shore? The answer is that in 1530 the name "Usando" was thought to be the name for the main island of Ulleungdo while the name "Ulleungdo" was being used to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. This confusion started in 1412, when a group of people from an island named "Yusanguk-do" (流山國島 - 유산국도) sailed into a harbor on Korea's east coast and told officials there that their island had a smaller neighboring island called "Muleungdo" (武陵島). They actually referred to "Yusanguk-do" as the "main island" (本島), which meant that Muleungdo was the smaller neighboring island. (See HERE.)
Visible from the East Coast of Korea
As mentioned above, the islands of Usando/Ulleungdo (于山島 鬱陵島) were described in the 1530 geography text as being visible from the east coast of Korea. The actual description, which follows, was in a section of the book describing the east coast village of Uljin (蔚珍 - 울진):
于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里
Usando/Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) or Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.
Koreans claim that the distance in the above passage was not describing the distance between Uljin and Ulleungdo, but was describing the distance between Ulleungdo and Usando, which Koreans claim was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks). However, that claim does not make sense since the bearing was clearly given as being from Uljin to the two islands, which means that the distance would have only been referring to the distance between Uljin and the two islands. Moreover, it was mentioned that trees were visible, but Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) is just barren rocks with no trees, which eliminates any possibility that it could have been referring to Liancourt Rocks.
Notice also that the text said that Usan/Ulleung was once thought to be one island, which means that there was no knowledge of Ulleungdo's neighboring island at one time in the past. Also, only one area was given, which suggests that the two islands were just a main island with a small neighboring island. In fact, that would describe Ulleungdo and its small neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 죽도), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore.
Full Text Description of Usando/Ulleungdo
于山島 鬱陵島 一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中 三峯岌嶪撑空 南峯稍卑 風日淸明則峯頭樹木 及山根沙渚 歷歷可見 風便則二日可到 一說于山鬱陵 本一島 地方百里 新羅時 恃險不服 智證王十二年 異斯夫爲何瑟羅州軍主 謂于山國人愚悍 難以威服可以計服 乃多以木造獅子 分載戰艦 抵其國誑之曰 汝若不服 則卽放此獸踏殺之 國人恐懼來降 高麗太祖十三年 其島人 使白吉土豆 獻方物 毅宗十三年 王聞鬱陵地廣土肥可以居民 遣溟州道監倉金柔立往視 柔立回奏云 島中有大山 從山頂向東行至海一萬餘步 向西行一萬三千餘步 向南行一萬五千餘步 向北行八千餘步 有村落基址七所 或有石佛鐵鍾石塔多生柴胡藁本石南草 後崔忠獻獻議 以武陵土壤膏沃 多珍木海錯 遣使往觀之 有屋基破礎宛然 不知何代人居也 於是移東郡民以實之 及使還多以珍木海錯進之 後屢爲風濤所蕩覆舟 人多物故 因還其居民 本朝太宗時 聞流民逃其島者甚多 再命三陟人金麟雨 爲按撫使 刷出空其地 麟雨言土地沃饒 竹大如杠 鼠大如猫 桃核大於升 凡物稱是世宗二十年 遣縣人萬戶南顥 卒數百人 往搜逋民盡俘 金丸等七十餘人而還 其地遂空 成宗二年 有告別有三峯島者 乃遣朴宗元往覓之 因風濤不得泊而還 同行一船泊鬱陵島只取大竹大鰒魚 回啓云 島中無居民矣.
우산도 울릉도 무릉, 우릉이라고도 한다. 두 섬은 (울진)현 동쪽 바다 가운데 있다. 세봉우리가 높이 솟아 하늘에 닿았는데, 남쪽으로 갈수록 점점 낮아진다. 날씨가 맑으면 봉우리 꼭대기 나무와 산 아래 모래들을 역력히 볼 수 있다. 바람이 좋으면 이틀이면 가히 닿을 수 있다. 일설에 우산과 울릉은 본래 한 섬이라고 한다. 둘레가 백리이며
신라 때 (지세가) 험함을 믿고 복종하지 않으니 지증왕 12년(511, 13년의 오기) 이사부가 하슬라주(명주-강릉지역) 군주(軍主)가 되어 이르기를, "우산국 사람들은 어리석고 사나와서 위세로는 복종시키기 어려우니, 가히 계교로써 하리라." 하였다. 이에 나무로 사자를 많이 만들어 전선(戰船)에 나누어 싣고, 그 나라에 가서 속여 말하기를, “너희들이 만약 항복하지 않으면, 이 짐승들을 풀어서 밟아 죽이게 하겠다” 하니 그 나라 사람들이 두려워하여 항복하였다.
고려 태조 13년(930) 그 섬사람들이 백길 토두로 하여금 방물을 바치게 하였다. 의종 13년(1159, 고려사에는 11년) 왕이 울릉도가 땅이 넓고 비옥하여 가히 백성들을 거주하게 할 수 있다는 말을 듣고 명주도 감창사 김유립을 보내어 보고 오게 하였는데, 유립이 돌아와서 아뢰기를 “섬 가운데 큰 산이 있는데 산꼭대기를 따라 동쪽을 향해 나아가면 바다에 닫는데 1만여보, 서쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 3천여보, 남쪽을 향해 나아가면 1만 5천여보, 북쪽을 향해 나아가면 8천여보가 됩니다. 촌락의 옛터가 7곳이 있는데 간혹 석불, 철종, 석탑이 있으며, 멧미나리(柴胡), 고본(藁本, 실록에는 호본(蒿本)), 석남초(石南草)가 많이 납니다.” 하였다.
후에 최충헌(고려사에는 최이)이 무릉도의 토양이 기름지고, 좋은 재목과 해산물이 많다는 말을 듣고 관리를 파견하여 보고 오게 하였더니 부서진 집터가 완연하였고, 언제 사람이 살았는지 짐작할 수 없었다. 이때 동쪽 군현의 백성들을 이주시켜 섬을 채우니, 많은 좋은 재목과 해산물을 거두어들이기에 이르렀다. 후에 누차에 걸쳐 바람과 파도에 배가 뒤집혀져 많은 사람들이 죽게 되었으므로, 그 거주민들을 (육지로) 귀환 시켰다.
우리 나라(조선) 태종 때 유민들이 그 섬에 도망가는 자 심히 많다는 말을 듣고, 삼척인 김인우를 안무사로 거듭 임명하여 (유민들을 육지로) 데려 오게 하고 그 땅을 비웠다. 인우가 말하기를 "땅이 비옥하고 대나무의 크기가 기둥 같으며, 쥐는 크기가 고양이 같고, 복숭아씨가 되(升)처럼 큰데, 모든 물건이 이와 같다." 하였다.
세종 20년(1438) (울진)현인 만호 남호(南顥, 실록에는 남회(南會))가 군사 수백을 이끌고 가 거주민들을 모두 붙잡으니 김환(金丸) 등 70여인이 귀환하였으며 그 땅이 마침내 비었다.
성종 2년(1471) 별도로 삼봉도가 있다고 아뢰는 자가 있어 이에 박종원(朴宗元)을 파견하여 살펴보게 하였다. 바람과 파도로 정박하지 못하고 귀환하였는데, 동행한 한척은 울릉도에 정박하여 단지 큰 대나무와 전복을 취하였을 뿐이며, 돌아와 보고하기를 “섬 가운데에는 거주민이 없습니다”라고 하였다.
Usando, Ulleungdo are also called Muleung (武陵) and Uleung 羽陵). The two islands are in the sea due east of this village (Uljin). Three peaks reach high into the sky. The southern peak gets gradually smaller. On clear, windy days, the trees on the summits and the sandy beaches at the base of the mountains are clearly visible. With a fair wind, they can be reached in two days. It is said that Usan/Ulleung were originally one island. They have an area of 100 ri.
During the time of Silla, the land was believed to be too rugged to subjugate, but during the twelfth year of King Jijeung [512 A.D.] Isabu became the commander of Hasula-ju and said, “The people of Usan are ignorant and savage and would be difficult to subjugate with strength, but we can use cunning.” Then, he made many wooden lions and loaded them onto their warships and then went to the country and deceitfully said, “If you do not surrender, I will release these animals and you will be trampled to death. The country’s people were very scared and surrendered.
In the thirteenth year of Goryeo’s Taejo (930 A.D.), the emissaries of the island (Ulleungdo), Baek Gil and To Du to, paid tribute to the king. In the thirteenth year of Wui Jong (1159 A.D.), the king heard that the land of Ulleung was wide and fertile and that people could like there, so he sent Myeongju-do Gamchang Kim Yu-rip there to see. Yu-rip returned and reported:
“There was a big mountain in the middle of the island. Following the mountain peaks we traveled about 10,000 paces east to the sea. To the west, it was about 13,000 paces. To the south, it was about 15,000 pace. And to the north, it was about 8,000 paces. There were remains of seven villages on the island. There was also a stone Buddha, an iron bell, and a stone pagoda. There was lots of siho (柴胡 - Bupleurum falcatum L.), Chinese lovage root (藁本), and heather (石楠草) growing on the island.”
Later, Choi Chung-heon said that the soil of Muleungdo was fertile, and there were many precious trees and sea products, so the king sent an official to see. The official reported that there were obvious ruins of houses, but he could not guess when people had lived there. Then he said that if people from eastern villages were moved to settle the island, they could gather the precious wood and sea products. Later, the strong wind and waves caused boats to capsize time and again, killing many people, so the settlers were brought back.
During the time of Taejong, in this dynasty, hearing that a great many displaced people ran away to the island, the king appointed Samcheok resident Kim In-u as anmusa to evict them and leave the island empty. In-u said, “The land is fertile and the bamboo is as big as pillars. The rats are as big as cats, and the peach seeds are as big as a doi. All of its products are like that.
In the twentieth year of Sejong (1438), Commander Nam Ho (南顥), an Uljin resident, led 100 soldiers to go and capture all the runaways. He returned with more than seventy people, including Kim Hwan (金丸). The island was finally empty.
In the second year of Seongjong (1471), there was a person who reported there was also an island called Sambongdo (三峯島), so Bak Jong-won (朴宗元) was sent to investigate. The wind and the waves prevented him from reaching the island and anchoring, so he returned. One of the ships in his group anchored at Ulleungdo and only brought back some big bamboo and big abalone. They returned and reported, “There is no one living on the island.”