竹島問題の歴史

4.11.08

1900 The Times Map

This map, "China And Japan", is one of the maps in "The Times" Atlas which was published at the office of "The Times," Printing House Square, London in 1900. These maps were all 'tipped in' to the atlas, meaning that they could be removed as a single intact sheet. Many of the maps are based on maps that first appeared in Richard Andree's Algemeiner Hand-Atlas (Leipzig, 1880s), which is considered one of the most visually pleasing atlases from the late 19th century. The maps are finely detailed and the printing is sharp and crisp with no off-setting.


Please look at the "Sea of Japan", there are islands "Matsu I." (Ulleungdo), "Liancourt Rks." (Liancourt Rocks) and "Oki Is."




Matsu Island (Ulleungdo) was coloured in light green (yellowish green) which directed Korean territory and Liancourt Rocks and Oki Islands were coloured in green which directed that they belonged to Japan.[Click the left map to magnify]





One of the most dignified maps showed that Liancourt Rocks were not Korean territory in 1900. Obviously the people of the world didn't think that Liancourt Rocks belonged to Korea. It automatically denies the theory of pro-Korean scholars that Seokdo in the Korean Edict #41 (1900) was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks).

The world saw Liancourt Rocks to be present in the Japanese territory, as Watanabe Kouki mentioned "Foreign maps show Hornet Rocks (= Liancourt Rocks) to be Japanese territory" in 1878. http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2007/06/1877-watanabe-says-liancourt-rocks-is.html

And Meiji Government recognised the situation so they decided to incorporate the rocks after they reconfirmed that there were no traces of occupation by any other countries.

Looking at it impartially, the incorporation was done in accordance with the international laws. As far as Korea has no records to have reached Liancourt Rocks before Japan did, and no records to have owned and controlled the rocks before, it seems that Korea's claim is unreasonable.

11 comments:

  1. Wow!! This is absolutely fantastic !

    Though this is published by private company, still, it is famous "The Times". And it clearly shows Ulleungdo(Matsu Island) to be Korean, coloured in yellow just like Korean peninsula, and Liancourt Rocks to be Japanese, coloured in green just like Oki islands and Shimane. Have we ever seen such a map (Matsu Is → Korean, Liancourt Rocks → Japanese) around 1900 before? From Isabella Birds's book we've already knew that British considered Ulleungdo to be Korean eastern most limit, but it is really good to know that they also considered Liancourt Rocks to be Japanese territory in 1900.

    Thanks, pacifist

    Good job, as always.

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  2. Yes, this is probably the most accurate map of that time that I have seen. Good find, Pacifist.

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  3. Thanks Kaneganese and Gerry.
    I haven't heard from Steve the frogman yet, how are you?

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  4. Why is this a great find? It's a private publication (not political map) of an 1895 map already drawn.

    Second how do the territorial perceptions of a private map maker impose upon Chosun Korea?

    Also, this map was published in 1900 do you have a date? Ordinance 41 was declared in late October of 1900. Are you trying to tell us foreign governments were aware of this declaration, printed the map and published it all after October 25th 1900 and before 1901? I seriously doubt that. In 1900 things just didn't happen that fast.

    The map maker just got a little horny with his green pen. We all know Japan didn't annex the islands until the Russo Japanese War of 1904~1905.

    What matters is Japan's territorial perceptions here.
    Dokdo-Not-Japanese-In-1899
    Dokdo-Not-Japanese-In-1899
    Dokdo-Not-Japanese-In-1901

    If this map gets you excited, it shows what a desperate state Japan's claim to Dokdo is really in...

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  5. Steve the toadface,

    Welcome back, Steve. As you have seen many western maps from the late 19th century to early 20th century, almost all of them depicted Liancourt Rocks as Japanese territory with some exceptions that depicted the rocks as nobody's land. No map depicted them as Korean territory at all. Not at all, Steve.

    It illustrates how the world recognised whom the rocks belonged to. The world knew that Japan controlled the area including the rocks - Japanese fishermen were engaging in sealion hunting there in the late 19th century while some Koreans were only hired and brought to the rocks by Japanese in the early 20th century.

    The world knew the rocks didn't belong to Korea, as Korea's eatern most limit was Ulleungdo. It was a widely known common sense in those days, only modern Koreans and their collegue including you are trying to ignore the history.

    Even if this map was published before the Korean Edict, it only shows how the world recognised the territory of Korea.

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  6. P.S.
    Did you forget that you wrote "Everyone knows Ulleungdo was a Korean island since the 6th Century. Stop using maps that can be verified as historically inaccurate as evidence of anything Pacifist"?

    http://dokdo-or-takeshima.blogspot.com/2008/10/1903-german-map-of-japan.html

    Then, what you'd say about this "historically accurate" map?

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  7. Pacifist, what is "historically accurate" about the map you've posted?

    If Liancourt Rocks were indeed ownerless in 1900 as you say, then it can't be correct if it depicts the islands as Japanese. They didn't "annex" the islands until 1904~1905. So this kills your argument right there.

    You've lucked into a map (the only I've seen) of the scores of inaccurate maps your scoured all of cyberspace for. This one exception of the plethora posted showing Western nations also thought Ulleungdo was also Japanese.

    It is not a trend, and not a political map.

    Make a copy of it, place it on your livingroom floor and do a dance around if you like. But it means sweet FA in terms of historical significance Pacifist. Chill out.

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  8. It was natural for the western people to misunderstand that Dagelet island (Ulleungdo) belonged to Japan, as it was called in Japanese as Matsu island and the area was controlled by Japanese - main ship companies were Japanese.

    Take island (Argonaut) went to Korea in the late 17th century while Matsu island (Dagelet) was left within Japanese territory. Ulleungdo was Korean territory, it was Korean eastern most island. These may have been accurate information in the late 19th century. They only lacked one more information that Matsu island was Ulleungdo.

    So if they depicted Ulleungdo as Japanese Matsu island, it is not adequate to claim the maps as "inaccurate".

    The important point here is that Liancourt Rocks were located in the area where Japan controlled (remember that Ulleungdo was the eastern limit of Korea) and nobody thought that the rocks belonged to Korea.

    In these circumstances, Japan was rather square to incorporate the rocks. They incorporated the rocks officially in accordance with international laws rightfully, just like other small islands such as Ogasawara islands. It was because Japan was a new comer to western countries and they tried to make their country lawful and rightful.

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  9. Pacifist, I've written an article about the incorporation of Marcus Isands.

    The same slimy tactics were used by Komura Jutaro to incorporate Marcus Islands. That is using the illict activities of poachers and trespassers as a "legal" basis to sieze territory. It was same thing done by Nakai Yozaburo on Dokdo.

    Also, using questionable practices of so-called public notification as legal announcements.

    Pacifist, we know the truth about colonial era expansionism and nobody respects these claims anymore.

    Expansionism-Is-Dead-Pacifist

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  10. Steve the frog-belly,

    You always distort facts.

    To follow is a true history of Marcus island (Minami-Torishima) from Japanese records:

    The presence of the island was recognized among western people in the 1800’s, but the island was still a kind of a legend. There were a few reports about the island by whale ships in the Pacific Ocean but its location and name were ambiguous.
    The first precise record of the island was made in 1864 when a mission ship from Hawaii “Morning Star” (the captain’s name was Gelert), which referred to the white beach and the dense bushes and trees.

    The second record was by a captain of the ship named “David Hoadley” (the captain’s name was Kilton) in May 1868 who mentioned almost the same thing “a short island of beach covered with bushes and trees”. In 1874, a captain of an American survey ship “Tuscarona” (the captain’s name was Belknap) surveyed the island for the first time and reported that it situated in long 154 degree E, lat 24 degree 14’ N.
    Six year later (in 1880) a French warship “Aclai-Ieu” (the captain’s name was Folny) surveyed the island and reported that it situated in long 153 degree 57’ E, lat 24 degree 30’ N.
    In those days it was once treated as a part of the M ri na Islands (Spanish territory) and it was called “Marcus” in the mid-19th century. It also called as Weeks island.
    The island became to be known among the western people in the late 19th century but it remained as an isolated island.

    The first Japanese who visited the island were Shinzaki Jotaro (信崎常太郎), from Kochi prefecture, and his company. They reached the island in November 1883. Although uncertain, Saito Seizaemon (斉藤清左衛門), from Shizuoka prefecture, discovered the island in 1879, according to Tokyo Shimbun dated July 26th 1902.
    In June 1889, A. Rosehill, the captain of an American sailboat “discovered” the island and made a landing. He misjudged that he was the first discoverer, hoisting the Star-Spangled Banner on a palm tree. He sent a report about the island to the Department of State but it was not accepted as an official one and left untouched for 13 years.

    In 1896 Mizutani Shinroku wanted to develop the South Seas and sailed with a sailboat “Tenyu-Maru” in order to search for Marcus and Granpas islands (later, the latter was proved to be not present). He reached Marcus island on December 3rd of the same year after being annoyed by storms. He landed on the island and recognized that it would be a promising place for development. He returned to Japan swiftly and sent 26 laborers from Ogasawara island on December 28th the same year while he presented a report about the island with a map mentioning the location as lat 24 degree 25’ N & long 152 degree 35’ E, asking to let him use the place. This was the first survey map by a Japanese. It was later introduced on the newspaper (Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, July 29th 1902).

    Later, Shinzaki Jotaro (above mentioned) began an export business of albatross feather/down with a trader from Yokohama, Jotaki Shichigoro (上滝七五郎).
    Japanese government named the island “Minami-Torishima (South Bird Island)” and incorporated it into Ogasawara which belonged to Tokyo metropolis on July19th 1898, according to Mizutani’s application. The location of the island was described as long 154 degree E, lat 24 degree 14’ N. And they rented the island to Mizutani Shinroku.
    However, Mizutani’s business at Minami-Torishima was not satisfactory. He handed over the business to Jotaki Shichigoro in September 1900 for one year. Jotaki promoted the business vividly and resident laborers counted 70 people at a time. Mizutani thought to advance the business together with Jotaki after the expiration of the contract, trying to send ships several time. After many troubles, he succeeded in let 49 people move from Ogasawara to this island and their business developed. They made a village called “Mizutani-Mura (Mizutani village)” at the center of the south part of the island.

    During the period above, Rosehill had prepared for the possession and administration of the island. He got a permission from the USA government to gather Guano in July 1902. He then left Honolulu on July 11th for the Marcus island.
    The Japanese government heard this news and feared that a dispute between Japanese residents at Mizutani-Mura of Minami-Torishima and Rosehill would take a place. So they sent Ishii Kikujiro, the head of the telegraphic section of MOFA, with a warship Kasagi which arrived at the island on July 27th but Rosehill had not reached the island.
    So they let the First Lieutenant of Navy, Akimoto Hidetaro and his 16 men land the island with foods for three months and the warship Kasagi returned.
    Rosehill reached the island on July 30th. Although there was a little fuss between Rosehill and Akimoto, Rosehill understood the situation in the end. They surveyed the island after getting permission and returned to USA.

    It was put under control of USA in September 1945 after the WWII but was returned to Japan in 1968 along with Ogasawara islands.

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    Steve the frogface,

    Please don't mislead the readers.

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  11. After all, the difference of Liancourt Rocks and Marcus island is the difference of attitudes of Korea and USA.

    USA didn't refute the incorporation and American maps show that Marcus island belongs to Japan while Korea occupied the rocks one-sidedly and their maps show its Korean territory although it was groundless.

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