竹島問題の歴史

22.10.08

1863 Korean Map from Japanese Woodblock Encyclopedia

This map is from a Japanese woodblock encyclopedia called "Edo Daisetsuyo Kaidaigura" (江戸大節用海内蔵) which was published in 1863, the 3rd year of Bunkyu. It contained a map of Korea which was titled as "Map of Chosun Country" (朝鮮国図), although we have no detailed information who made this map etc.
Please look at the map (click the map to enlarge). There is Ulleungdo "欝陵" at off the coast of 江陵 with three tiny islets around it, and you may notice a larger island at the north of Ulleungdo and it labelled as "Usando". This Usando is apparently different from Liancourt Rocks in the location, shape and size. It maybe an imaginary island which Korean people believed to be present.
The map resembles the Map of Joseon which Kaneganese introduced before in the following post:
It seems possible that the mapmaker for the 江戸大節用海内蔵 referenced the map. According to Kaneganese's investigation the woodblock encyclopedia had been revised for many times and the oldest version was published in 1704. So it may have been a common knowledge among Japanese people that Usando was a larger island at the north of Ulleungdo.
By the way, Korean scholars insisted that Usando (Josando) in the map in the formar post was Liancourt Rocks. But this can't be true if one thinks with a commonsense interpretation.

27 comments:

  1. Thanks, pacifist

    BTW, the map seems to be similar to the one in the Korean news which Professor 李相泰 claimed it is Takeshima/Dokdo. I have no idea how it can be today's Takeshima, in any way.

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  2. Sorry, I forgot to add the link.

    1600's? - The Map of Joseon(朝鮮国図)

    This post in July was totally VANKed and flooded with the nasty comments...

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  3. Thanks Kaneganese, I didn't notice the map resembles the 1600's map you introduced. The mapmaker of the woodblock encyclopedia may have referenced the 1600's map.

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  4. pacifist,

    I re-read the choson online article, and noticed the original or woodblock was made in 17th century, but map in the article was printed in 19c. So I believe they are same maps. And according to the article, 「江戸大節用」 was sort of a encyclopedia in Edo era (as you mentioned in the post) and it contains the information which was common in Japan at the time. I other words, it is safe to say that Japanese in Edo era commomly considered (Ahn's) Usando was a huge island which locates north to Ulleungdo which belong to 江原道, just like Ahn told Japanese in 1696. I think this information is very important since it proves Japanese recognition of Usando was not today's Takeshima since 1600s to the early Meiji.

    "独島(日本名竹島)が朝鮮固有の領土だったことを示す日本の古地図「朝鮮国図」が、地図収集家のモ・ギョングクさんによって発見された。

     地図は縦26.5センチ、横31.5センチの紙に印刷されており、上が東の方向を示している。それによると、韓半島(朝鮮半島)の東側には「爵陵」という島があり、その北側には「子山島」という島が描かれている。古地図専門家の李相泰・国際文化大学院大学碩座教授(元国史編さん委員会史料調査室長)は「爵陵は『鬱陵』を誤記したもので、子山島は『于山島』とともに当時の独島の名称の一つだ」と指摘した。朝鮮王朝の粛宗(在位1661-1720)の時期に日本の漁民の侵犯に抗議した漁民の安竜福(アン・ヨンボク)も独島を「子山島」と呼んでいた。李教授は「当時は正確な地理的知識がなかったため、独島が鬱陵島の北西に描かれていることが多い」と話した。

     地図の左右の版心部分には、「江戸大節用」という文字が書かれている。これは江戸時代に日本で出版された百科事典に当たる書物で、当時の日本で常識とされた情報が収録されている。

     李教授は「印刷本そのものは19世紀のものと推定されるが、全体的に不正確に描かれていることからみて、まだ朝鮮に対する情報が少なかった17世紀に地図の原本が作られたとみられる。その当時の状況でも独島が朝鮮の領土だということに疑いの余地がなかったことを示している」と説明した。

     日本の地図で独島を朝鮮の領土と表記しているのは、朝鮮国地理図(1592)、三国接壌地図(1785)、大日本分県地図(1878)などこれまでに約10種類が発見されている。"



    By the way, I noticed that there are many Japanese made Joseon maps which describe Usando. Edo-style "Ulleungdo and another island". It seems it was "common knowledge" for Japanese in (possibly in Momoyama era, 1592) Edo era and early Meiji that there is "another huge island called Usan-to near Ulleungdo".

    1. 1592 - 朝鮮国地理図 八道総図
    2. 江戸大節用海内蔵 朝鮮国図 (original)
    3.1785 - 朝鮮八道図 : 林子平(west to the bottom : Ulleugndo is also labelled as 于山国 )
    4. 1863 - 江戸大節用海内蔵 朝鮮国図
    5.1873 - 朝鮮国細見全図 : 染崎延房
    6. 1873 - 朝鮮全図 : 海軍水路寮
    7. 1875 - 改訂新鐫朝鮮全図 : 佐田白茅著 (no labels)
    8. 1894 - 朝鮮全図 : 柴田源三郎

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  5. Thanks Kaneganese,

    Your opinion is very informative, and I agree that Japanese people in the Edo era had a common sense about Usando which was a huge island at the north of Ulleungdo - it can't be Liancourt Rocks (because if it were, they should have written as Matsushima but they didn't).

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  6. This map is introduced by 海野一隆,who is famous scolor for old map collection, but It is so stupid that the Korean news insist as if Korean scolor found this map.

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  7. 海野一隆? So he introducet it to Korean? What for? Don't tell me he also believes this Usando is today's Takeshima. I kinda hoped this Prof. Lee Sang-te, who admitted Usando in 1711 map is not Dokdo/Takeshima, but Jukdo, was a decent scholar. I was wrong, apparently.

    By the way, I googled "江戸大節用海内蔵" and it seems there are so many copy of this 1863 version. And it seems that original was made in 1704, not 1600s. I need more information on this book.

    http://www.fujigoko.tv/mizuho/fjarekoremizuhoco.htm

    江戸大節用海内蔵(1/2) 須原屋茂兵衛 宝永元年(1704)元版、文久三年(1863)増版、江戸時代の実用辞典、富士山図あり 古書 2003*
    江戸大節用海内蔵(2/2) 須原屋茂兵衛 宝永元年(1704)元版、文久三年(1863)増版、江戸時代の実用辞典、上の二冊目

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  8. Kaneganese,
    The map is on his book published on 2005 東洋地理学誌研究 日本篇 海野一隆  (P388)

    I forgot which post I commented before about hisbook.

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  9. GTOMR,

    Please let me know if you know what late Professor wrote about this map. I'd like to know when the original wood block was made and printed first.

    BTW, It seems this "江戸大節用海内蔵" was very common in Edo era. And this 1863 version seems to have been printed and sold widely. It is no surprise that Korean collecter "find" the map. It's on Yahoo! auction even now. The problem is, nobody except for Korean can see this Usando as today's Takeshima.

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  10. I just remembet that he just introduce the map of Korea in the book, nothing special explanation.

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  11. Kaneganese, the island on the 1711 map was not Jukdo Islet from his survey. It was taken from the Ulleungdo Sajeok. The bamboo island from the Ulleungdo Sa-jeok was un-named. If you look at the map the island due East of Ulleungdo was drawn in front of Dodong Harbour. This was not Jukdo.

    The name Usando was an simply an assumption made by Pak Chang Seok.

    Inspector Pak wrongfully drew this island in front of Dodong Harbour. You can see where he placed his stone marker on his map. This marker was found next to Dodong Harbour in 1937. You can see the characters 刻石立標 on his map found here.

    Usando-Map

    We also know that this island was drawn south of Jeodong Harboour because we can see the location of Jeodong marked as 所謂佇田洞 on the harbour North of this 所謂于山島. So it's clear the island on this map was borrowed from the Ulleungdo Sa-jeok.

    If you look you will also see other non-existent islands South of Ulleungdo.

    All of these features can be found on so many maps of Chosun's Ulleungdo the 佇田洞, 刻石立標, and some other parts too. Know that we know the origins of these errors we can see the Usando on these maps was the incorrect assumption of one inspector not the end all in determining the ancient identity of Usando.

    Take at look at the Ulleungdo maps on the right side of the page and you can see Jeojeongdong, Pak's Stone Marker, Waiting Winds Place, Hole Rocks. Note how the location of them all becomes more distorted. Also notice how the position changes of these features.

    On a more interesting note. Pak's map also shows the outline of an island southeast of Ulleungdo. This is the same as mentioned in the Ulleungdo Sa-jeok as well. Knowing Pak cited the Ulleungdo Sa-jeok there remains a possibility Dokdo is on these maps.

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  12. The names on the map seem to be all mixed up. For example, it shows Gyeongsang province (慶尙道) in the northern part of the Korean pennisula. Also, Ganghwado (江花島) was written as "Honghwado" (紅花島) Anyway, the map seems to have been a copy of the may from the 1600s, which, itself, seems to have been a historical map.

    As for the islands of Usando (于山島) and Ulleung (蔚陵), they were shown as being essentially the same size and shape, which was a common feature of Korean maps of Ulleungdo in the 1600s and before. Before the An Yong-bok incident (1690s), Koreans were unsure of the geography of Usando and Ulleungdo. Some thought they were two neighboring islands while others thought they were two names for the same island. Being unsure, mapmakers just drew the two islands as essentially the same size and shape. It was not until Jang Han-sang's 1694 inspection that the truth about Ulleungdo and Usando became known.

    When Jang Han-sang returned and reported about his 1694 inspection of Ulleungdo, Korean officials thought that he had mistakenly gone to the wrong island since he reported that there was only one island with a small neighboring island just two kilometers off the east shore. He said the small island had haejang bamboo on one side. This fact was reflected in Bak Seok-chang's 1711 map of Ulleungdo. Bak labeled the small island as Usando (于山島) and also indicated that it had haejang bamboo on it.

    Han Jang-san also mentioned seeing an island about 120 kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo, which we know that Korean officials had not previously heard of because they had told the Japanese that they knew of no other island besides Ulleungdo. Also, Han guessed the island to be about one third the size of Ulleungdo, which tells us he also did not know about Liancourt Rocks since Ulleungdo is actually about 390 times bigger that Liancourt Rocks, not three times bigger.

    From Han Jang-san's 1694 inspection and Bak Seok-chang's 1711 inspection, we know that Koreans believed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島 - 주도), which is about two kilometers off Ulleungdo's east shore. That new understanding of Usando was reflected in almost all of Korea's maps from the 1700s to the 20th century.

    Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) was never considered Korean territory and it was never even drawn on any of Korea's old maps.

    Koreans like to claim that the An Yong-bok incident supports their claim to Liancourt Rocks, but it actually does the exact opposite.

    Koreans can thank An Yong-bok for helping them keep Ulleungdo, but Japanese can thank An Yong-bok for helping to confirm that the Joseon government did not know about Liancourt Rocks and that the Koreans believed Usando to be Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo.

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  13. Gerry,

    "Anyway, the map seems to have been a copy of the may from the 1600s, which, itself, seems to have been a historical map."

    You are right. It looks like the original of this maps was (woodblock) made in 1704, so it is natural that this was made based on Korean historical maps in 1600s. We know there is Japanese made Joseon map ( 朝鮮国地理図 八道総図(1592)) which shows Usando west to Ulleungdo, but I don't know which map they copied when they made this woodblock. But it is certain that there were Choson map in 1600s in Japan which shows Jasando north to Ulleungdo. We need more study on this issue.

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  14. Gerry, there was a lack of consensus regarding the identity of Usando long after Bak's inspection so it's totally misleading to say "Koreans believed Jukdo was Usando" after Bak's 1711 map was drawn.

    We know following inspections of Ulleungdo referred Jukdo Island as such not just Usando.

    Lee Gyuwon's pre-inspection conversation showed us the Korean government had not reached a conclusion about the identity of Usando at all. So your so-called truth about Usando is just wishful speculation and the ignorance of data that leads in other directions.

    Of course maps show a neighbour island of Ulleungdo as Usando. They were simply copies with all of the flaws of their predecessors including phantom islands to the South. Bak's Wooden Signpost, Stone Marker (Dodong), Waiting Winds Place, Jeojeondong etc., These maps all show Bak's interpretation that a island due East of Ulleungdo with bamboo on it was "So-called Usando"

    As I've said Gerry, look to the Southeast of Ulleungdo on Bak's map and you will see the outline of an island, just as in the Ulleungdo Sajeok. Liancourt Rocks.

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  15. Steve Barber (Dokdo-Takeshima),

    There was only one Korean map before the 20th century that showed Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo labeled as "Jukdo," and that was Lee Gyu-won's 1882 map. Almost all of Korea's other maps showed Ulleungdo's neighboring island as "Usando" (于山島). Just look at the maps posted on the right side of this blog.

    The reason Lee Gyu-won was unable to find Usando in 1882 was that residents by that time were also using "Jukdo" to refer to Ulleungdo's neighboring island. Since Lee could not find Usando, he mistakenly assumed that it was just another name for the main island of Ulleungdo, when, in fact, it was an alternate name for Jukdo. Even after Lee's inspection, Korean maps continued to show Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo as "Usando." See THIS 1884-1894 MAP, which was made after Ulleungdo was opened for settlement and after an island supervisor was assigned. This map is more evidence Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo was being called both Usando.

    The Ulleungdo Sajeok said that Jang Han-sang saw an island 120 kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo that looked to be one third the size of Ulleungdo. The island shown on Bak Seok-chang's 1711 map was not one third the size of Ulleungdo and was drawn as a neighboring island of Ulleungdo, not 120 kilometers away.

    The small island on Bak's 1711 map was just one of the six neighboring rock islets (石島) that commonly appeared on Korean maps of Ulleungdo and was mentioned in Korean documents. You are the one who is trying to mislead by suggesting that the island was Liancourt Rocks, which is essentially two rock islets ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo.

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  16. Gerry, were not just talking about maps here. Inspections of Ulleungdo also mention Jukdo Islet.

    Re Bak's map. I'm not misleading anyone at all. I'm saying that Pak's map was strongly influenced by the Ulleungdo Sa-jeok and thus there is the strong possibility the island to the southeast of Ulleungdo is in fact the island mentioned by Jang Han Sang.

    Not only was the Hae-Jang Bamboo island drawn due East you can see other features on Pak's map that were also in the Ulleungdo Sa-Jeok.

    Two examples are the large stream that Jan Han Sang mentioned was West of Seong In Bong it is drawn as 大川流出 and the expansive valley 寬豁. Both of these features are found in the Ulleungdo Sa-Jeok and Bak's map. I'm sure I'll find more examples as I read the Ulleungdo Sa Jeok in more detail. But it's clear this record was an integral part of Pak's map.

    It would have been impossible for his to draw the distant island as one-third the size of Ulleungdo on his map. It's not at all unreasonable to conclude the island Southeast was Dokdo Gerry.

    That being said, many ancient maps of Ulleungdo show this island as attached to Chosun's Ulleungdo.

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  17. Steve Barber (Dokdo-Takeshima),

    Besides Lee's 1882 inspection, the only other inspection report to mention "Jukdo" was the one of Han Chang-guk's 1794 inspection of Ulleungdo, but the description in that report was confusing since it said that three islands called Bangbaedo, Jukdo, and Ongdo were all within 100 paces of each other. Jukdo is not within a hundred paces of other islands.

    Wouldn't it be natural for Bak Seok-chang's 1711 map of Ulleungdo to match up Jang Han-sang's 1694 decription of the island since they inspected the same island? Bak would have also been able to see the haejang bamboo on Jukdo, which he labeled as Usando. If Bak was influenced by Jang Han-sang's 1694 inspection, then that would suggest that Jang also labeled Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo as Usando on his map of Ulleungdo. Unfortunately, Jang's map of Ulleungdo has apparently disappeared.

    The unnamed island shown offshore of Ulleungdo on Bak's 1711 map was not Liancourt Rocks, but if we were to close our eyes and make beleve it were, then it was not being called Usando since the map showed Usando as Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, which was labeled as having haejang bamboo on it. Liancourt Rocks does not have the soil needed to grow bamboo.

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  18. Gerry,
    Can you confirm Green box on the peak or rocks in the water?
    Comparison northern part of Ulleungdo on inspector's map of Ulluengdo.

    cf:Jukam and Samseon
    Samseon zoom up
    Tourist map of ullunegdo (especially, check 2 錘峯 and Albong, and other rocks or peaks on Ulluengdo.om

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  19. Gerry, of course Bak and Jang reports match up.

    However, it's not just the similarities that give us clues but also the errors.

    First of course is the huge error in the location of Usando which you insist is Jukdo Islet. It's not possible to perceive Jukdo Island due East of Dodong and South of Jeojeongdong. We know this because the other landmarks that are marked reasonably accurately show Bak was not out of his reckoning when he mapped Ulleungdo. It's impossible to think Bak would map Jukdo Islet so far off by both the compass and relative to other verifiably accurate reference points.

    Also, the usage of characters to describe some of the features (I've mentioned above) match, such as Haejang Bamboo Fields. Also the characters 大川流出 寬豁 are located in the same area of the map and the same portion of the Ulleung Sa-Jeok.

    This 大川流出 寬豁 is said to be to the West in the Ulleungdo Sa-Jeok and it is drawn as such on Pak's map. In reality this large stream and valley (Taeha Valley) is much more northwestern.

    This 1909 topographical map of Ullunengdo shows the major streams on Ulleungdo relative to Pak's map. Here you can see how Pak mapped Taeha Ri and Hyeong Mok Rock.

    Ulleung-Topmap

    Probably the worst analysis of Korean maps of Ulleungdo has to be on Fusunagi's article written some time ago. How could anyone make such critical mistakes when the characters were staring right at him on these maps? Even his publication shows he had knowledge of Chinese characters. Yet still he drew the conclusion Bak's Usando was Jukdo and then blindly mapped Ulleungdo around this theory. Assumption is the mother of all fuck ups.

    Here's a classic example of how he screwed up.

    First here is Prof Fusunagi's analysis of the Ulleungdo map. Notice his location of Jeodong (苧)and Dodong (道洞) he drew in.
    Fusunagi's-Error

    Now if we look at the real map of Ulleungdo we can see 佇田洞 (the real Jeodong) wrongfully drawn in on Ulleungdo's northeast side above Dodong where Bak placed his stone marker.
    Fusunagi's-Error-2

    Knowing the author's knowledge of Hanja, I find it extremely hard to believe this error was an accident but more than likely blatant deception.

    On another note. Pak's map clearly shows where he placed his wooden signpost on Ulleungdo's West shore. This wooden post was still drawn on maps of Ulleungdo for over a hundred years later. How long would a wooden sign last in reality. 20 years? This alone indisputably proves phantom five island maps are all copies of Bak's map.

    Thus we can safely call these charts "Maps showing Bak's Usando" These maps represent the territorial perceptions of one man who probably never set foot on Ulleungdo before or after his 1711 inspection of Ulleungdo. How much more weight should his opinion carry than Anyongboks? Anyonbok was a seafaring fisherman much more familiar with the Ulleungdo region.

    Bak's Usando was unnamed on the very survey that influenced his 1711 map. Even then he called it the So-Called Usando showing he was drawing his own conclusions. There were 2 islands mentioned by Jang in his survey. The fact Bak decided the more proximal island was Usando shows he had narrow territorial perceptions of Ulleungdo. It's not likely those Korean's who resided on Ulleungdo for a thousand years had such limited knowledge of the Ulleungdo area.

    There are too many co-incidences and similarities related to Bak's map and Jang's survey to be ignored.

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  20. Hi Steve
    Do you know anything about what's going on with the project to put the map "大東輿地図" on Korean paper money?
    The Koreans are discussing whether it is appropriate because there is no Dokdo on the map, the following article says, Is that true?



    【ソウル=牧野愛博】韓国の中央銀行、韓国銀行が09年上半期に発行するとしていた新紙幣10万ウォン(約6600円)券が本当に登場するのか、雲行きが怪しくなってきた。紙幣の図案に使う古地図に独島(日本名・竹島)が載っていないため、同行は9月に準備作業を中断。姜万洙企画財政相は23日、年末までに発行の是非を改めて決める考えを表明した。

     古地図は朝鮮王朝時代に作られた「大東輿地図」。独島がなく、「紙幣のデザインとしてふさわしくない」という議論が起きた。韓国銀行は20日の国会答弁で「独島表記などの問題があり、検討中だ」と説明した。

     一方で、野党の民主党は「政府が保守だから、紙幣の肖像に使う日本植民地時代の独立運動家、金九(キム・グ)を嫌っているのではないか」と疑い始めた。国会では同党議員が韓国銀行に対して「一部保守団体の金九選定反対運動の影響を受けたのか」「前政権が発行を決めたから、(政府から)圧力がかかったのか」などの質問を浴びせる事態になっている。
    http://www.asahi.com/international/update/1026/TKY200810250263.html

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  21. Welcome back ponta様!!
    (You are true natural enemy 天敵 of Steve the toadface!)

    And thank you for such an interesting news. Did the Koreans notice that old maps didn't carry the figure of Liancourt Rocks?

    Originally, 大東與地図 had neither Usando nor Jukdo.

    http://www16.tok2.com/home/otakeshimaoxdokdox/UllunegoMapsDiscography/1830-1860's%20Kim%20jonho%20maps.htm

    But if Korean people believe that Usando was Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks), they should use some other maps just like 青邱図 etc. Why didn't they decide to use one of such maps for teh design of new paper money - 100,000 Won note?
    It maybe because they knew that Usando in old maps was not Dokdo.

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  22. Wow ! Pacifist and Ponta (Frick and Frack) came out of retirement for one last comedy show. How long have you two been at this game?

    Pacifist, did you read anything about what I posted above? The link you gave states in 1696 the Koreans called Jukdo Islet Usando. This is false. Look at what a shabby job Fusunagi did when he analysed Chosun maps of Ulleungdo. This is pretty outrageous don't you think?

    Pak inspected Ulluengdo and drew his survey map. Then he added data from the Ulleungdo Sa-Jeok. Pak's Usando was not Jukdo from his survey. It was a previously un-named island with bamboo on it exactly due East of Ulleungdo. We know this from the other points on his map.

    The posters here have mislead readers about these maps for long enough, but now the truth is out and the party is over. From a true historical study of Usando, Bak's Usando carries no more weight that Anyongbok's because we can now trace the origins of the errors on the maps he influenced. We can now verify maps showing the phantom five islands to the South are all copies.

    Why not use an ancient map showing Usando as part of Korea. We know that Usando is Dokdo. Remember Usando is what Japanese call Matsushima. And of course Matsushima-Usando was part of Gangwan Province!!

    Dokdo=Usando=Korean=Land

    The Koreans are finally playing it smart. Simply keep the Dokdo issue from being controversial and Japan will just shrivel up and blow away.

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  23. Usando was not Liancourt Rocks, as everybody knows now.

    Usando in the old Korean documents was Ulleungdo at first, and then meant Jukdo in the later years.
    Liancourt Rocks had never ever been drawn in Korean maps whilst the rocks had been drawn in various Japanese maps accurately as two rock islets.

    This means Korea didn't know about Liancourt Rocks. The records uncovered that there was a Korean who saw Liancourt Rocks from Ulleungdo in the past (but he didn't reach the rocks), it was early 20th century when first Koreans were brought to the rocks by Japanese ships.

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  24. Pacifist, face the truth.

    The Koreans were living within visual proximity of Dokdo when the Japanese were still eating worms and berries.

    Ancient-Koreans

    It's painful watching you helplessly fight to strip Dokdo away from the island's rightful owner, Korea.

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  25. Please say your opinions logically, not emotionally. All we have to do is to show the evidences.

    There is no evidence that Korea owned Liancourt Rocks in the past. "Living within visual proximity of Liancourt Rocks" is not an evidence, only an assumption.

    All the records and evidences direct that Korea reached Liancourt Rocks for the first time in the early 20th century when Japanese hired and brought them to the rocks.

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  26. Steve the frog belly,

    I re-read your posting above but I can't understand why you are blaming Funasugi's theory.

    As to the 1711 map, there is 穴岩 (hole rock) at the north and Usando and 刻石立標 at east. These points are not inconsistent with Funasugi's map.

    Why do you think the 刻石立標 should have been at Dodong? It may have been erected at the place somewhere facing Jukdo, not Dodong.

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