竹島問題の歴史

16.6.07

1902 Japanese Document Describing Ulleungdo

The following is a translation of an appendix from a 1902 Japanese document entitled, "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Trade, Document Section: Trade Documents" (外務省通商局編纂 通商彙纂). The appendix is titled, "Situation on Korea's Ulleungdo," and it talks in detail about Ulleungdo's geography, climate, population, products, commerce, fishing, transportion, moorage, and epidemics. In the Geography Section of the document, Ulleungdo's neighoring islands of Jukdo and Gwaneumdo are mentioned, as are some rocky islets, but there is no mention of Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima), which clearly shows that the Japanese government did not consider Liancourt Rocks to be part of Ulleungdo geography. Liancourt Rocks is mentioned in the fishing section of the document, but it says it was the Japanese who were going there to fish since the document said there were "absolutely no Korean fishermen" on Ulleungdo.

The document says that Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島) was called テツセミ島, which seems to be the Japanese pronunciation of "Daetseom" (댓섬). "Daetseom" is a pure Korean word that means "Bamboo Island." As for Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Gwaneumdo (觀音島), it said it was called "the island of Do-mok" (島牧ノ島嶼), which is the Korean pronunciation. "Domok" seems to have been a mixed Sino-Korean and pure Korean name since "do" (島) means "island" and "mok" (牧) is the sound for the pure Korean word for neck 목. In his 1882 report, Ulleungdo inspector Lee Gyu-won referred to Gwanemdo as 島項 (도항 - Dohang), whch means "Island Neck." Today, Koreans refer to the cape pointing toward Gwaneumdo as "Seom-mok" (섬목), which is the pure Korean word for "Island Neck."

Here is a translation, by Kaneganese, of the appendix on Ulleungdo:

Appendix

Situation on Korea's Ulleungdo

Geography, Situation of Korean Residents on the Island, Products, Boat Moorage, General & Business Situation of Japanese Residents, Fishing Industry Situation, Climate, Epidemics, and Union charter

(Department of Trade, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Section 1 - Geography of Ulleungdo

Ulleungdo is an isolated island 40 ri from Uljin (蔚鎮) in Gangwon Province (江原道). It has a circumference of about nine and a half ri. The shape of the island is similar to an irregular triangle. The shoreline of the whole island is precipitous cliffs and beaches are rare. There are no good harbours for ships. There are only a few small bays or inlets, such as at Dodong (道洞) and Jeodong (苧洞). Since most of the seafloor along the shore is rock, it is not suitable for anchorage.

The geography is long and winding mountains, and there are not many flat paths leading through the mountains. It used to be a thickly forested island, which was dark even in the daytime, but it has now been cultivated and deforested along the coastline, with the growth of the population on the island.

"Daetseom" (テツセミ島) is located offshore in front of Wadalli (臥達里), and Japanese residents call the island "Takeshima"(竹島). The circumference of the island is about thirty chou (三拾丁余). "Metake" bamboo(女竹) grows thick there, but since there is no drinking water, it is said that there are no people living on the island. Moreover, offshore of Jeongseok-po (亭石浦), there are Ssangchok Rock (雙燭石 - Sou-Soku-Seki ) and the island of Do-mok (島牧ノ島嶼), which has a circumference of twenty chou (二十丁). The Japanese residents call the island "Gwaneumdo" (観音島) and the cape "Gwaneum Cape" (観音岬). Between the two is the "Strait of Gwaneum" (観音ノ瀬戸 - Kan-Non-no-Seto). Another name for Ssangchok Rock (雙燭石 Sou-Soku Seki) is "Three Rocks" (三本) since there are three rocks sticking up out of the sea. There are other jagged, steep rocks on the shore nearby, but none of those rocks are named, except tiny Tawara-jima(俵島), which is located in front of "Bright Cliffs"(光岸 - Gwang-an).

Mount Rari (羅里山) is located in the center of the island and is the highest of the peaks on the island. [In Korean, 羅里山 would be pronounced as "Narisan."] Large trees thickly cover the mountain and screen out the sky. Fallen snow remains unmelted throughout the four seasons, so if you go into a shady(?) part of the mountain, it is cold even in the summer.

Halfway up the mountain is a flat area of about eight square cho (丁) that Koreans farm, but it is barren soil and not suitable for soy beans or wheat. Therefore, they often plant corn. Mount Chu (錐山) stands to the north of Mount Rari ( 羅里山), but it is a bit smaller than Mount Rari. The mountain is very rocky and the top is covered with trees, but because it rises up near the shore, everyone (mistakenly) says it is the highest mountain on the island. There are a chain of other mountain peaks covered with thick trees and grass, but no one has bothered to name them. The two largest rushing steams on the island are Namyang Stream (南陽川) and Taeha Stream (台霞川 ), which are following by smaller streams like ?bok (?伏) and Jukam (竹岩) flow. Since these streams flow through the four seasons and the quality of the water is very high, they generally provide drinking water for the islanders.

Section 2 - Situation of Korean Residents on the Island

There are no Koreans on this island who lived there since ancient times. Twenty-one years ago four people immigrated from Gangwon Province (江原道): Bae Gye-ju (裵季周)、Kim Dae-mok (金大木)、Byeon Gyeong-un (卞敬云)、and Jeon Sa-il (田士日). They reclaimed land between the mountains, made farming land, and worked as farmers. The following year Hwang Jong-hae (黄鐘海)、Choi Do-su (崔島守)、Jeon Sa-un (田士雲)、Kim Hwa-cho (金花椒)、Hong Bong-yo (洪奉堯)、and Lee Son-pal (李孫八) came from the Gangneung region of Gangwon Province (江原道江陵地方), and Jang Kyeon-i (張敬伊) came from somewhere in the Cholla Province (全羅道). All together seven people came to the island. Every year since then, many people immigrated from four provinces: Gangwon (江原), Gyeongsang (慶尚), Hamgyeong (咸鏡), and Cholla (全羅). Their homes were scattered, and they cultivated the land in earnest, engaging wholly in farming. There are only a few who engaged in fishing. The soil in the southeast portion of the island is black and better than the soil on the Joseon mainland. However, the northwest portion of the island is barren land and farming is not productive.

Generally, the manner of the people is simple and unspoiled. There are no brutal or cruel people. They organize schools every where and teach classes on Confucianism. Generally, people learn Chinese, so their nature is gentle and reliable. Thus, our trade goes smoothly without any conflicts. The Japanese residents and the Korean islanders maintain direct, trouble-free relationships.

No.1 - Name of Village, Number of Households, and Population ("X" refers to Japanese households) [I will just write Korean or Japanese]:

[Households]


  • Dodong (道洞) - 27 Korean; 36 Japanese (307 men, 79 women)

  • ?bokdong (?伏洞) - 10 Korean; 2 Japanese (6 men, 2 women)

  • Jungryeong (中嶺) - 30 Korean; 2 Japanese (4 men, 2 women)

  • Tonggumi (通龜尾) - 20 Korean; 5 Japanese (23 men, 7 women)

  • Gul-am (窟巖) - 7 Korean

  • Sanmak-gok (山幕谷) - 26 Korean

  • Hyangmokdong (香木洞) - 17 Korean

  • Sinchon (新村) - 35 Korean; 1 Japanese (1 man)

  • Chusan (錐山) - 7 Korean; 1 Japanese (1 man)

  • Cheonnyeon-po (千年浦) - 6 Korean

  • Cheonbudong (天府洞) - 16 Korean

  • Jongseokdong (亭石洞) - 20 Korean

  • Naesujeon (乃守田) - 11 Korean; 2 Japanese (5 men, 4 women)

  • Sagongnam (砂工南) - 2 Korean

  • Sadong (沙洞) - 40 Korean; 2 Japanese (9 men; 3 women)

  • Sinri (新里) - 7 Korean

  • Ganryeong (間嶺) - 10 Korean

  • Namyangdong (南陽洞) - 57 Korean; 9 Japanese (26 men; 12 women)

  • Sucheung ? (水層?) - 1 Korean; 1 Japanese (2 men)

  • Daehadong (臺霞洞) - 34 Korean; 6 Japanese (15 men, 4 women)

  • Hyeon-po (玄浦) - 50 Korean

  • Gwangam (光岩) - 10 Korean

  • Naridong (羅里洞) - 30 Korean

  • Changdong (昌洞) - 6 Korean; 2 Japanese (2 men, 2 women)

  • Jukam (竹岩) - 11 Korean; 5 Japanese (14 men, 6 women)

  • Wadalli (臥達里) - 2 Korean

  • Jeodong (苧洞) - 62 Korean; 5 Japanese (7 men, 5 women)

There are many houses scattered in those 27 villages, and many of them are on land in valleys, on farmland and on the seashore. Groups of houses can be found here and there, so people live without overcrowding. Only in places like Naridong (羅里洞), with thirty households, and Cheonbu-dong (天府洞), with sixteen household, do people live close together. Based on last year's survery, there were 447 Korean households on the whole island, but today there are 556 households, with a population of 3,340. (The Japanese population by home province, by industry and by the table of imports and exports is attached.)

Section 3 - Products

(槻梅)?,Japanese white pine, phellodendron, "tempo"pear, "tabu" tree (Machilus thunbergii), Japanese beech, ? , empress tree, sandalwood, camellia, cherry, Jew's Ear Fungus, holm oak (Ilex integra), phellodendron bark, mulberry, soybeans, barley, broad bean, wheat, potato, abalone, dried squid, laver, Ceylon moss, copper pheasant?, cuckoo, etc. (Last year, the yield was more than 6,000 koku for soybeans, 2,000 koku for broad beans, 4,000 koku for barley, and 3,000 koku for wheat.)

Cuckoos that look like seagulls fly as far as thirty nautical ri during the day, but stay on the island at night. Natives make fires on mountains to attract the birds and then beat them to death when they gather. They then squeeze out their oil for their lamps, and dry their meat for food.

Section 4 - Boat Moorage

Initially, one can say that there are absolutely no suitable coves for anchoring on this island, but Dodong (道洞) is the best available. On average it has a width of about seventy ken (127.26 meters) and a depth of about ten jin (18.18meters). Both the east and west shore of the island are high, sheer cliffs, so ships anchor at "the Rock" (巌石), where there is room enough for only a few ships. Therefore, ships that stay for a while must be pulled up on the shore while waiting to load and set sail again. It seems unlikely that large vessels would be able to enter the cove since it is so narrow. When there is strong wind from the southeast or southwest, large swells occur, and even worse, spray splashes up onto the houses on the shore. Needless to say, ships in this cove would be in great danger of colliding with each other when those powerful winds and swell occur. Every ships that comes to this island, without exception, stops at this port since there are no other coves. Most of the Japanese stay here and all the trade cargo accumulates here.

Jeodong (苧洞) is a stopover for ships on the east side of this island. Though it is extremely narrow and, therefore, a hard place to anchor ships, it is convenient for ships to call at a port when they want a break from the southwestern winds.

Sadong (沙洞) is not a port, but the seafloor is sandy, without rocks or reefs, so it is convenient for ships to anchor there, and all the steamships do so. Though there are other small inlets, all their seafloors are rocky and reefy, so it is said they are not suitable for anchoring ships. As explained above, there are no good harbors on this island; therefore, it would necessary for steamships to consider the wind direction when calling at this port since it may prompt a change in where they take refuge.

(Note: 1 ken and 1 jin equal 6 shaku, which is about 1.818 meters.)

Section 5 - General Situation of Japanese Residents

A long time ago, people from Hamada of Sekishu (石州濱田) and Sakai of Hakushuu (伯州境) came to this island to cut and export the trees. During the 12th and 13th years of Meiji (1880-1881), a Tokyo company brought many loggers from Osaka here to cut zelkova trees, which were provided as building materials for a certain temple in Kyoto. Since the island was uninhabited in those years, there was no one here who engaged in lumbering or fishering, but later, in the 25th year of Meiji ( 1893), a few loggers from Oki came over, build a temporary shed, and finally started residing permanently. Now, there is only one man who still lives here, Wakita Shotaro (脇田庄太郎), a logger and blacksmith from Shimane Prefecture. Others have come, but none have lived here for more than seven or eight years.

As more and more people came to live here, it was only natural that bad people also came, which created a need for regulation. This led people to organize the so-called, Japanese Association of Commerce (日商組合会) in April of the 30th year of Meiji (1897). The association appointed two people to help protect the residents. However, as the population contiued to grew rapidly, it became impossible to sort out the problems with that method of law enforcement. Moreover, since the most of the residents were ignorant and illiterate, two groups of people developed. The strong subjugated the weak, and the wise tricked the ignorant. In one extreme case, a bad person even used a dangerous weapon to forcefully seize property.

The good people were deeply distressed by these bad people since there was no one to restrain them. Therefore, in July in the 34th year of Meiji (1902), important people in the community concerned with the situation held a meeting with the ordinary people, and they enacted a statue that would eliminate the old, bad habits. They agreed to appoint a chairman and a vice-chairman, both without salary, and one paid superintendent. They also agreed to elect 15 honored assemblymen to work under them and deal with the problems and incidents that occurred through a process of council and judgement. The association tried hard to enforce the statutes. For example, they put criminals in a newly created detention center to try to get them to repent their crimes, and they sent people who had committed serious crimes back to the nearest police station in the homeland (Japan).

On January 4th of this year, a dispute erupted between two groups of people. The former head of the association tried to disrupt the association, by convincing many of the lumbermen and other workers to leave the association and come over to his side. The present head tried everything he could to settle the dispute through arbitration, but he failed and ultimately accepted their leaving. Thus, all the Japanese residents divided into two groups of people. More than three fourths of the residents left the association, and only one-fourth remained. The two groups became hostile to each other not only in business dealings, but also in everyday dealings. Though the association shrank and was less prosperous, they continued to maintain order and never succumbed to the majority opposition.

On April 23th of this year, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) decided to establish a police substation on the island. That caused people to regret their actions, and they started applying to reenter the association one after another. The association accepted their applications and allowed all of them to become members again. On April 28th, the association changed the statue in the regulations due to the establishment of the police substation.

Section 6 - Business Conditions

The Japanese and Koreans on this island rarely do business through cash transactions; they mainly barter products and goods with each other. Therefore, both nationalities substitute soybeans for cash, regardless of whether the trade is big or small. The goods for import to Korean residents are fabric for shirts, calico, kai silk, yarn, oil, matches, sake, salt, and other small articles. There is not much Korean demand, so profits are small. Besides that, the only other trade to speak of is some trade of daily goods with the Japanese. Among the export products from the Koreans are soybeans, broadbeans, grains, Phellodendron bark, and a little Ilex integra, while lumber and marine products are from the Japanese.

Reference: Most zelkova trees close to the shore, where it is convenient for hauling, have already been cut down. Therefore, not only it is impossible to get good quality logs without going into deep into the forest, it is also so expensive to transport the logs, which are logged all over the island, to Dodong (道洞) that it is no longer profitable to export zelkova trees to Japan. Now, they have started logging such trees as Japanese hemlock, Japanese white pine, and "tempo pear." The list of product prices and workers' wages are attached with the list of imports and exports.

Section 7 - The Fishing Situation

The fishing season on the island is usually from March to September, and the marine products are only abalone, blowfish. agar weed, laver, and a few kinds of wakame seaweed. Most fishermen come from Amakusa of Kumamoto (熊本ノ天草), Oki in Shimane (島根ノ隠岐) and Shima region in Mie (三重ノ志摩地方). There are absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island, but many do come each year from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) which grows thickly on the seashore. [Samdo (三島) was present-day Keomundo (巨文島).]

This year fishermen from Amakusa and Oki brought eight boats equipped with diving gear and set up a base at Dodong (道洞). There were also two boats with divers (蜑船) from Shima and a one boat with divers (海士船) from Amakusa, who set up a temporary base at Jeodong (苧洞). All of these fishermen cruised around the island fishing, but compared to last year, the haul of fish was poor; thus, not much profit is expected this year.
Also, about fifty nautical ri due east from the island, there are three small islands called "Ryanko-do" (Liancourt Rocks), which Japanese residents call Matsushima. There is abalone on the island, so some fishermen go there. However, drinking water on the island is scarce, so it is impossible to fish there for long periods. They come back to this island after four or five days there.

Section 8 - Transportation

Transportation between this island and the homeland (Japan) is in operation each year from March to August, and the Japanese ships come and go to the ports of Shimonoseki (下関=馬関), Sakai (境), Hamada (濱田), and Oki's Saigo (隠岐ノ西郷). However, the strong winds and high waves are always so severe after September that there is absolutely no transportation then since the voyage is so difficult. This means the number of Japanese residents grows in March, but many sail back to Japan before September or October. It has been reported that there were only 350 people who spent the new year on the island last year and only ninety-nine people the year before that.

Last year, there was not much rice imported, so the food supply for the people who spent the new year on the island began to grow short around December. Most Japanese residents had a huge trouble and had to eat soyabeans mixed with grass roots and bark. They tried to get a special food shipment from the homeland (Japan), but the voyage in winter was too dangerous, so no one answered their request. Finally, they asked the Sanko Company (三光社), who, on February 16th of this year, finally dispatched the 160-ton Sanko Maru 2 (第二三光丸) loaded with food supplies. The food was distributed to the residents, but it was too little to meet their needs, so they had to make three more requests for food delivery.

If you make a voyage on a traditional Japanese sailboat (和船) from this island to Busan, Sakai, Hamada, or Shimonoseki, it takes about two and a half days (ニ昼夜半), but if you take the steamship Sanko Maru (三光丸), it takes only a day and night (一昼夜) to reach the port of Sakai. However, strong winds blow for many days, so there are no more than five or six days a month when the weather is good enough to make the voyage. There are many cases of ships not being able to reach their destination, but drift, instead to other places like Tsuruga (敦賀), Mikuni (三国), Echizen (越前), Tajima (但馬), Tango(丹後), Sado (佐渡), or Noto (能登). It is treacherous, in fact, that it is said tthat only half the ships are able to sail directly and safely to their planned destinations while the other half are forced off course. Sometimes ships are even sinkwrecked.

Since there is absolutely no (Korean) transportation between the island and the Korean mainland, Korean residents on the island hire Japanese ships to come to the island, but it is only two or three times a year. Even though about twenty (Korean) ships from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) come to the island to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) in the winter, they all return to the mainland fully loaded (without passengers). Other than those ships (from mainland), there is no one who owns a ship adquate enough to make the voyage. However, on April 11th of this year, Komiya Manjiro (小宮萬次郎)'s ship, Taihei maru (太平丸), went to Busan loaded with Korean goods and passengers. He left Busan and returned here on May 1st. The ship was pulled up on shore while the Korean goods were unloaded.

(Reference) The ports where many ships came and went in May were as follows: The incoming Japanese ships were one traditional Japanese sailboat (和船) from Busan, two ships from Janggi's Mopo (長鬐牟浦 = Pohang), two ships from Oki, five ships from Shimonoseki (赤間関), and one ship from Sakai (境) for a total of eleven. The outgoing Japanese ships were, two traditional Japanese sailboats to Shimonoseki, one ship to Hakata (博多), one ship from Janggi's Mopo (長鬐牟浦), and one steamship to Sakai for a total of five.

Section 9 - Climate

The average temprature in May is 65 degrees Fahrenheit, but it goes up to around 100 degrees in the daytime around July and August and stays around 70 degrees in morning and after dark. In winter, it sometimes drops to about 20 degrees, the Japanese have never witnessed that it got so cold that it cracks water jars. The snow starts to fall around December and continues to fall until about February. It is said that the snow accumulates to between 1.21 (四尺) and 2.12 (七尺) meters every year.

Section 10 - Epidemics

There has no epidemics on the island, except for smallpox and malaria, but there has been one case dysentery, on July 19th of last year. There was no antiseptic, needless to say medicines, so the epidemic spread, finally, infecting fourteen people. Two of the people were said to have died, but the other twelve recovered completely by end of August. As a result, a mass sanitation regulation (大清潔法) was enforced.

The 1902 document mentioned that the Japanese residents on Ulleungdo had created an association to help govern their community. It was called the Japanese Commerce Association. The document also listed the bylaws that the Japanese association had made to govern themselves. Two of the bylaws mentioned the Korean residents on Ulleungdo, and they were as follows:

No. 10 - If a member of the association is harsh in his dealings with the Koreans, and it harms the peace and order or our membership, we will try to mediate the situation as much as possible, but if it is too serious, the person may be ordered to leave Korea.

No. 27 - If a person steals Korean property, damages their farm crops, uses obscene words or commits acts of obscenity against women and children, the person can also be ordered to leave Korea, depending on the situation.

The above report gives us a good understanding of what life was like on Ulleungdo in 1902, at least from the Japanese perspective. It also talks a great deal about the geography. Even though it mentioned the Korean names for Ulleungdo's neighboring islands of Jukdo and Gwaneumdo, it did not mention "Usando" (于山島) or "Seokdo" (石島), which are the Korean names Koreans claim were references to Liancourt Rocks. Usando was almost certainly just an old name for Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo since old Korean maps showed Usando in almost the exact location of Ulleungdo's neighboring island. As for Seokdo, though it was mentioned in the 1900 Imperial Edict, it was never again mentioned in any Korean document nor appeared on any Korean map of Ulleungdo, which suggests that it was most likely used as a catchall phrase to refer to the various, small rocky islets around Ulleungdo. The document also said that the Koreans on Ulleungdo were not fishermen and did not have any boats suitable for sailing to the mainland of Korea, which means that the Koreans on Ulleungdo did not travel to Liancourt Rocks, unless it was on a Japanese fishing boat.





160 comments:

  1. Gerry, I hope my translation make sence to you.

    地勢ハ山岳連亘シテ平地担路至テ少シ往昔ハ全島森々タル樹木繁茂シ蓋し晝尚ホ暗キノ觀アリシモ今ヤ島民ノ繁殖スルニ従ヒ海岸付近ハ一體ニ伐木開拓シテ農作地トナセリ
    ヲツセミ島ハ臥達里ノ前洋ニ在リ本邦人之ヲ竹島と俗称ス周回三拾丁余「タブ」女竹繁スト雖トモ飲料水ナキヲ以テ移住スル モノナシト云フ、又亭石浦ノ海上ニ雙燭石及島牧ノ島峡アリ周回二十丁本邦人之ヲ観音島ト称シ其岬ヲ観音岬ト云ヒ其間ヲ観音ノ瀬戸ト呼ヘリ、又雙燭石ハ三岩高 ク樹立スルニヨリ三本ノ名アリ、其他 周園ノ海岸ニ数箇ノ峻巖アリシモ一モ名称ナク唯タ光岸ノ前面ニ俵島アレトモ至ヲ小島ナリトス

    The geographical feature is long and winding mountainous, and there are not much flat roads that leads to the mountains. It used to be a thick forest island which was dark even in the daytime, but caltivated through the deforestation along the coastline followed by the growth of the population on the island.
    Otsusemi island(ヲツセミ島) locates front shore of Gadari(臥達里), and our country man calls the island Takeshima(竹島). The circumference of the island is about 30-chou(三拾丁余) (tab) Medake(女竹) grows heavily, but since there are no drinking water, it is said that there are no one who lives on the island. Moreover, on the shore off the 亭石浦, there are 雙燭石(Sou-Soku-Seki) and the island 牧ノ島峡. The circumference of the island is 20-chou(二十丁) and our country men call the island as 観音島 and the cape as 観音岬, and the between those as strait of Kan-nonn(観音ノ瀬戸:Kan-Non-no-Seto). And 雙燭石 has another name of "three rocks(三本)" since there are three rocks stick out of the sea. There are other rigid or steep rocks on the seashore near the place, but none of those rocks are named except tiny tawara-jima(俵島) which locate in front of shiny shore(光岸).

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  2. By the way, I remember you have mentioned about the Latin name of 海蔵竹 on 于山島 as "Pleioblastus simonii" in map7 post and I found the Japanese name of the bamboo was 女竹. This is exactly the same name of the bamboo in this article.

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  3. On second thought, I translated "本邦人" as our country men, but it could be Korean. I am not sure this word really means. If it means Korean, it might be better to say "彼邦人", but if the writer were on the island, it could mean Korean.

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  4. Kaneganese, Gerry,

    Good job, Kaneganese!

    As to 本邦人, I think the first translation is right.
    Usually 本邦 means our country (= Japan) and the writer repeatedly wrote 韓民 as Korean people if he meant "this country's people" he would write as 韓民. If he wanted to mean "this island7s people", he should have written 本島人 or 本島民.

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  5. Kaneganese,

    Did you think that 本邦人 may mean Koreans because 本邦人 called Otsusemi island as 竹島?

    本邦人 called Jukdo as 竹島, and called Gwaneumdo as 観音島 ... so Jukdo must be known as 竹島 (Takeshima) among Japanese if 本邦人 was Japanese...

    In 1880 the warship Amagi found that there was a small island just north of Ulleungdo (Matsushima) and it was called 竹島. They said "The mystery for a long time dissolved", so they declaired that two islands Matsushima and Takeshima were nothing to do with Japan. So it's not inconsistent if they called it takeshima in 1902, I think.

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  6. Kaneganese and Pacifist,

    The name 牧ノ島峡 seems to have been the name local Koreans or residents used for Gwaneumdo (觀音島), which means that 牧ノ probably represented the Korean pronunciation for the island. How would 牧ノbe pronunced in Japanese?

    As for "本邦人," doesn't that just mean "local residents," which means it could have been referring to both the Japanese and Koreans, but was probably referring to the Japanese on Ulleungdo.

    I'm also interested in the name of the "strait" between Ulleungdo and Gwaneumdo. The Japanese pronunciation of 觀 seems to be "Kan," which is sounds like the Korean pronunciation for 間, which means "between." Wasn't 間島 the name for 觀音島 used on the following 1724 map?

    1724 Map

    ReplyDelete
  7. Gerry,

    The pronunciation of "牧ノ" is "makino".

    BTW, 観音 (Kannon) means the Goddess of mercy. Isn't there a rock like a statue of goddess on the island? japanese used to name as that if they saw that kind of rock.

    The word was the origin of Japan's camera maker Cannon (it was called as Kannon seiki before).

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thank you, Pacifist, and thank you, Kaneganese, for the translation.

    I have to get to work, so I will have to think about all of this later, but so far there does not appear to be any clear answers.

    Pacifist, the three rocks next to Gwaneumdo have been associated with celestial maidens (仙女), but I do not know if it is related to 觀音.

    One interesting thing about the document is that it shows that the Japanese in 1902 apparently did not know the distance to Liancourt Rocks, either, since it said that the rocks were fifty ri (里 = kilometers) due east of Ulleungdo.

    Anyway, I have to get to work. Have a nice day.

    ReplyDelete
  9. I wonder what was the origin of the word Otsusemi (or Wotsusemi).
    If this is Korean word, isn't this Usan?

    In Japanese word in those days, ツ was written in the normal size even if it meant small size. If the writer meant to be the latter, the word should be pronounced as Ossemi or Wossemi (ヲッセミ). Doesn't this sound similar to Usan?
    Usan, Ussan, Ussam, Ossam...

    ReplyDelete
  10. Gerry,

    I know that you are working now but...

    You wrote that "One interesting thing about the document is that it shows that the Japanese in 1902 apparently did not know the distance to Liancourt Rocks, either, since it said that the rocks were fifty ri (里 = kilometers) due east of Ulleungdo".

    I couldn't find that depiction in the document. Did you mention some other documents in 1902?

    To follow is from the same book:
    本島の正東約五十海里に三小島あり。之をリヤンコ島と云い本邦人は松島と称す。同所に多少の鮑を産するを以って本島より出漁するものあり。然れども同島に飲料水乏しきにより、永らく出漁すること能はさるを以って、四五日間を経ては本島に帰航せり。

    About 50-kairi east of this island (Ullengdo), there are three islands, which is called Ryanko-to, or Japanese (本邦人) call it as Matsushima. Some go there because there are a few abalones. However, they can't go there for a long time because of lack in water for drink, they return home island (Ullengdo) in 4 or 5 days.

    I think 海里 is nautical mile, that is 1852m (1.852km). So 50 nautical miles are 92.6km. Isn't this accurate?

    ReplyDelete
  11. Pacifist,

    You are right about the nautical mile. That means the 50 海里 was exactly right. I am making a lot of mistakes these days.

    By the way, how do you pronounceラツセミ島?

    ReplyDelete
  12. Gerry,

    ラツセミ is pronounced as "Ratsusemi"

    If it is ラッセミ, it would be "Rassemi".

    ReplyDelete
  13. Pacifist,

    By the way, is the name for Jukdo ヲツセミ島 or テツセミ島?

    ReplyDelete
  14. Gerry,

    I magified the text and investigated it and found that it is テツセミ, not ヲツセミ.

    The print type is slightly different from today's type, but you can notice that the character テ in the first sentence "地勢ハ山岳連亘シテ", is similar to テ in the word テツセミ.


    And please take a look at "崎ト云ヒ其間ヲ" in the last sentence in the red frame. This ヲ is different from テ of テツセミ.

    So the island was called as Tetsusemi or Tessemi.

    Somebody in the Occidentalism once wrote that Tessemi "is supposed to be the Japanese pronunciation for Daetseom". What do you think?

    ReplyDelete
  15. Pacifist,

    Yes, I think テツセミ島 means "Daetseom," which is the pure Korean word for 竹島.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Gerry,

    I've heard that the pronunciation of the words with B, G, D would be changed to P, K, T if it comes at the top of the word in Korea, Bab (rice) of Kimbap changes to Pab in the sigle use. Is this right?

    So then how about Daetseom? It can be pronounced as Taetseom? It is very similar pronunciation anyway.

    ReplyDelete
  17. To.Mr Gerry,
    i.I just feel some relation with
    牧ノ島 and Seommok(島項/Dohang)

    Japanese pronunsation of ”牧ノ”are assumed that
    1.Makino(post by Kaneganese,this pronunsation is most credible)
    2.Boku-no/"MOKU-no"/Mako-no (some irregular pronunsation)

    Just queston,how to pronunsation of 牧+ノ in Korea?
    ----------

    ⅱ.Please let me know the difference of those Jukdo pronunsation as follows;

    1.Jukdo /chukudo /죽도?/竹島
    2.        /죽서도/竹嶼島
    3.Daetseom/Taetseom?/댓섬 /竹島

    Thx n B n R

    ReplyDelete
  18. Omr,

    Yes, I had the same feeling because the Korean pronunciation for 牧 is "mok." If it is possible to pronounce 牧 as "MOKU" in Japanese, then I think the translation for 雙燭石及島牧ノ島峡 was wrong. I think the translation should be as follows:

    雙燭石 = "Sangchok Rock"
    島牧 = "Domok"
    島峡 = "Isthmus" or "Cape"

    雙燭石及島牧ノ島峡 = "Sangchok Rock" and the "Isthmus of Domok"

    The correct spellings are as follows:

    竹島 (죽도) = Jukdo

    댓섬 = Daetseom

    "Daetseom" means "Bamboo Island" and is the pure Korean word for 竹島

    -----------

    Pacifist,

    No, the sounds do not change at the beginnning of a word. The Korean alphabet has separate letters for "b" and "p," for "g" and "k," and for "d" and "t."

    Actually, the length of the pronunciation for the Korean letters ㄱ is somewhere in between the English letters "g" and "k," and the Korean letters ㄷ and ㅂ are also somewhere in between the "d" and the "t," and the "b" and the "p," respectively. I still have trouble pronouncing those letters correctly.

    ReplyDelete
  19. To Gerry,
    雙燭石"Sangchok Rock"
    及 ”and"
    島牧 ノ島峡 Domok of and the "Isthmus of Domok"
    Great.Considering from the style on this records,your suggestion is on the mark.

    I felt additonal some relation between

    雙燭石"Sang chok Sok" and
    三陟 "Sam Chok" and
    松竹島"Song Juk do"

    about 三陟
    辛卯五月十四日自倭舡倉移舟待風所拙書 一句以標日後(刻立卯岩木於方上)萬里滄溟外將軍駕桂舟平生伏忠信履險自無漫搜討官折衡將軍三陟營將兼水軍僉節制使朴昌錫軍官折衡朴省三金壽元倭學朴命逸

    Gwanmundo has another name of 防碑島(Monument protected island,1794 in the comment of 江原道觀察使沈晋賢狀啓言),so it can assumed that the Gwanmundo and Samseon rock are very prominent like Jukdo at that time because most of koean report about Ulleungdo has the discription of 1.Jukdo 2.Gwanmundo and Sommok and Samseon Rks. 3 Hole Rks.

    Those pronunsation above three are very similar with each other ,so It has some possibility that 高宗Kojong confused Jukdo竹島 as 松竹島Song-jukdo,from 三陟Samchong of 刻石立標,on the other hand Lee draw 竹島 and 島項 on the Ulleungdo Map

    ReplyDelete
  20. Pacifist,

    Thank you for correcting my mistake "ヲツセミ". And yes, the reason I doubt 本邦人 meas Korean was the sentence 「本邦人之ヲ竹島と俗称ス」, since Japanese called Ulleundo as Takeshima.

    And I am collecting and reading some books on 「竹島事件」(Takeshima Incident). I hope I can write a post to explain the incident. By the way, could you give me a e-mail? pacifist? My address is myID@mail.goo.ne.jp. It starts with small letter.

    Gerry,

    What did you wrote as a title for Japanese-Japanese Glossary in your e-mail? The Chinese caracter didn't appear properly. You wrote
    "If you wanted to do that you could make a new post and label it something like "跋樅繃 蘢繃 滬鉋," which would be something Japanese speakers could recongnize. "

    And as for 牧ノ島峡, it is very wierd word for a proper Japanese word. That is why I skipped translating first. I thought I would try later, and I forgot when I posted, sorry. But after hearing GTOMR's comment, I understood why it was difficult to read.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Kaneganese,

    The title I suggested for the Japanese-Japanese Glossary was 竹島用語辭典 or you could just write "Japanese Glossary" in Japanese. It should be written so Japanese speakers can find it easily.

    ReplyDelete
  22. GTOMR,

    島牧 (도목 - Domok) was almost certainly used to refer to the pure Korean word 섬목 (Seommok), which means "Island Neck" and is the present-day name for the Ulleungdo cape pointing toward Gwaneumdo (觀音島). The Sino-Korean name for Seommok is "島項" (Dohang), which was the name Lee Gyu-won gave Gwaneumdo in 1882.

    島峡 (도협) means either "cape" (岬) or "isthmus (地峽)

    三陟 (삼척 - Samcheok) was the name of a name of a town on the east coast of Gangwon Province and was the base for some of the Ulleungdo inspectors. It is unrelated to the rocks around Ulleungdo.

    松竹島 (Songjukdo), 松島 (Songdo), and 于山島 (Usando) were all just different names for Jukdo (竹島), which is the small island about two kilometers off of Ulleungdo's east shore.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Anonymous6/6/07 13:48

    You are again gleaning the document for details when the facts are hitting you in the face fellahs...

    The document has Dokdo under the heading of "Situation of Ulleungdo" Showing the stronger territorial bond of Dokdo to Korea than that of Japan before the island was annexed. It's good news for Koreans !

    The article shows like other Japanese documents that fishing acivities on Dokdo were done via Ulleungdo because Japan was too away. This is the name as the Niitaka records of 1904 and the Black Dragon Article of 1903.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Anonymous,

    I think the document also says that it was the Japanese conducting the fishing operations on Liancourt Rocks, not the Koreans. The Japanese were only using Ulleungdo as a base for their operations.

    ReplyDelete
  25. anonymous,

    The document didn't hit our faces, nor Gerry's face at all.

    It only stated that fishermen from Ulleungdo did short stay to catch some abalones in 1902.
    But Japanese fishermen already began sea lion hunting in the 1890's there (there are some records in Japan) but there is no traces of Korean fishermen in records.

    As Japanese fishermen and forestry workers worked in Ulleungdo (Korean territory), some Korean fishermen could come to Liancourt rocks (Japanese territory), it's no wonder.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Pacifist,

    Did the Korean fishermen visit Liancourt Rocks on Korean boats or Japanese?

    ReplyDelete
  27. Kaneganese, Pacifist, GTOMR,

    I have rewritten the post to include the information that all of you provided in the Comments Section. I also added the remaining pages of the document to the post. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  28. 第七、漁業ノ状況
    本島ノ漁業季節ハ例年三月ヨリ九月迄ニシテ収穫物ハ鮑、鰒(ふぐ)、天草、海苔、若芽ノ数種ニ過ギス、漁業者ハ多ク熊本ノ天草、島根ノ隠岐、三重ノ志摩地方ヨリ渡来ス而シテ韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様ナレトモ毎年全羅道三島地方ヨリ多数ノ漁夫等渡来シテ海岸ニ満生スル若芽ヲ採取セリ本年ハ天草隠岐ノ漁業者都合水潜器船八隻道洞ヲ本拠(?)ト定メ又志摩ノ蜑船(タンセン・あま船)二隻天草ノ海士船一隻ハ苧洞(ちょどう)ニ仮小屋ヲ構ヘ何レモ全島ノ海岸ヲ巡漁セルモ今年ハ昨年ニ比シ餘程不漁ナルニヨリ利潤オオカラサル見込ナリト至ヘリ、又本島ノ正東約五十海里ニ三小島アリ之ヲリャンコ島ト云ヒ本邦人ハ松島ト稱ス、同所ニ多少ノ鮑ヲ産スルヲ以テ本島ヨリ出漁スルモノアリ然レトモ同島ニ飲料水乏シキニヨリ永ク出漁スルコト能ハサルヲ以テ四五日間ヲ經ハ本島ニ歸港セリ

    Pacifist,
    "It only stated that fishermen from Ulleungdo did short stay to catch some abalones in 1902."
    Are you talking about this document? which part? I read article 7, but there are no mention of Korean fishermen went to Takeshima/Liancourt Rocks. It only states "而シテ韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様ナレトモ毎年全羅道三島地方ヨリ多数ノ漁夫等渡来シテ海岸ニ満生スル若芽ヲ採取セリ" when it comes to Korean in that article. That means Korean fishermen came from 全羅道三島地方 to Ulleundo to collect seaweed(若芽). The last sentence about fishery on Takeshima definately describes Japanese fishermen, not Korean.

    Gerry,

    Do you need translation for this article?

    ReplyDelete
  29. Kaneganese,

    I would love to have a translation of this document because it goes into great detail about the situation on Ulleungdo in 1902, which was a unique period in time since it was after Ulleungdo was made a county of Gangwon Province and before Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima) was incorporated into Japan.

    Would you be willing to translate it? If you do, I am certainly willing to edit it for you.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Kaneganese,

    Yes, I meant this part.

    又本島ノ正東約五十海里ニ三小島アリ之ヲリャンコ島ト云ヒ本邦人ハ松島ト稱ス、同所ニ多少ノ鮑ヲ産スルヲ以テ本島ヨリ出漁スルモノアリ然レトモ同島ニ飲料水乏シキニヨリ永ク出漁スルコト能ハサルヲ以テ四五日間ヲ經ハ本島ニ歸港セリ

    The word 本島 (this island) means Ulleungdo here and it didn't say the fishermen belonged to Japan or Koreans, but anyway the fishermen from Ulleungdo went to Liancourt rocks to catch some abalones and came back to Ulleungdo in 4-5 days.

    So I can't exactly say that the fishermen were Koreans in Ulleungdo or Japanese who were staying in Ulleungdo, but if they were Japanese, Liancourt rocks located en route to Ulleungdo so that going back to the rocks only to catch some abalones doesn't seem to be natural. They could catch abalones there when they passed by the rocks whenever they wanted. So I imagined that they, who stayed for several days there, were Koreans living in Ulleungdo .

    Now that Japanese and Koreans were living together in Ulleungdo still in these days, information from Japanese fishermen could be easily passd to Korean fishermen, it's no wonder if they visited the island, but this doesn't mean that Koreans discovered the island. Japanese knew and used it since long before.

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  31. Pacifist,

    Does this document say anything about Koreans depending on Japanese ships for transportation to and from the Korean mainland? If it does, and if the Koreans on the island depended on the Japanese to take them back to the Korean mainland, then wouldn't that also mean that the Koreans on the island did not have ships to take them to Liancourt Rocks, as well?

    ReplyDelete
  32. Kaneganese, Gerry,

    I re-read the whole chapter and found out that Kaneganese was right, this chapter mentions about Japanese fishermen and it also mentions that Koreans came from the peninsula and engaged in cropping seaweeds. So the fishermen who went to Liancourt rocks to catch some abalons were highly likely Japanese.

    ReplyDelete
  33. Anonymous6/6/07 22:27

    The key word here is "home" island this means the Japanese who conducted the fishing activities did so from Ulleungdo. This is certainly not any basis for superior land claim.

    The 1903 Black Dragon Fishing manual was published in January of 1903 and stated that Koreans fished on Dokdo.

    Of course this means prior to the publication of the 1903 Black Dragon publication date. This puts Koreans fishing on Dokdo at least in 1902.

    Any fishing activity recorded on Dokdo from this book would be understood to include Koreans.

    Moreover, it's most likely Korean fishing on Dokdo started before any of these books.

    ReplyDelete
  34. anonymous,

    The word 本島 dosen't mean home island.
    The Japanese 本 means "this", or it indicates the thing that is on the topic. For example, "本官" means "myself" (especially used for policemen or officers), "本艦" means "this ship".

    from a Japanese dictionary: (About 本)
    [接頭]名詞に付く。

    1 今、現に問題にしているもの、当面のものであることを表す。この。「―議案」「―大会」

    2 それがいま話している自分にかかわるものであることを表す。「―大臣としては」

    3 きょうの。本日の。「―未明」

    BTW, the Black Dragon book only mentioned that Koreans called the island Dokdo (or Yanko-do?), didn't it? Anyway, the Koreans in the book were hired by Japanese sea lion hunters, not independent fishermen, I think.

    ReplyDelete
  35. I don't know about the other records, but I am prettey sure that the sentence from this article no.7 definately doesn't include Korean in fishermen who went to Liancourt Rocks. It is very unnatural to understand in that way. The author clearly separate Japanese and Korean fishermen. Moreover, later on the documents, he states the Japanese Fishery Association on Ulleundo. It cannot be include Korean.

    Gerry,

    OK, I will translate them bit by bit, because I am working on other translation currently. And yes, it is very interesting document. It describes what was like the people's life on Ulleundo in 1902 vividely. I think we should present all of them so that no one would distort the contents of this document.
    I did the no.7 first, and here goes.
    (Pacifist, could you proof read what I translated? Thanks !)

    Article no.7
    As for the fishery season on this island is usually from March to September, and the marine products are only (linmited to?)abalone, blowfish. agar weed,laver and a few kind of wakame seaweeds. Most fishermen comes from Amakusa of Kumamoto(熊本ノ天草), Oki in Shimane(島根ノ隠岐) and Shima region in Mie(三重ノ志摩地方), but there are no Korean fishermen on the island except for the Fishermen in the part of 全羅道三島 come to the island every year to collect the wakame seaweed which grow thickly on the seashore. This year, fishery businessmen from Amakusa and Oki arranged the 8 boats equipped with diving gear and settled in a 道洞 as a base, and 2 boat with diver(蜑船) from Shima and a 1 boat with diver(海士船) from Amakusa out up a temporary shed in 苧洞. All of those fishermen cruised all around the island for fishing, but compared to last year, the haul of fish was poor. Thus the profit of this year is expected as not much. And the 50_nautical_ ri of just east from the island, there are 3 small islands which called Ryanko island, which Japanese calls Matsushima. Since there are some abalones on the island, some fishermen go to the island. But there are only scarce drinking water on the island, it is impossible to fish for a long term, so they come back to the main island after spending 4-5 days on the island.

    ReplyDelete
  36. By the way, as for 本島, in the last sentence, it means both way. Since the Japanese fishermen in this article based their business on Ulleundo, 本島 could be mean main island. But "this island" also make very much sense. Maybe we should put both words?
    I don't think this is a big matter as anonymous says. Because there were definately Japanese fishermen to hunt sea lions from Oki island definately came from Japan, not Ulleundo around this period or so.

    ReplyDelete
  37. On second thought, since other two "本島" words form this article no.7 both exactly means "this island", not "main island", it is highly likely the last "本島" also means "this island". It is more natural in this case, as Pacifist said.

    ReplyDelete
  38. Good job, Kaneganese. I will edit it and add it to the document tomorrow.

    I noticed in your translation of Chapter 7 that it said there were no Korean fishermen on Ulleungdo, which means they did not travel to Liancourt Rocks, except maybe on Japanese ships. The Cholla Province fishermen from Samdo (全羅道三島) would only occasionally visit Ulleungdo, they only came there to harvest seaweed and trade with the Koreans on Ulleungdo.

    Anyway, thanks for that translation, and I agree that it is better to have the full translation so that people can be see that nothing is being left out.

    Good night.

    ReplyDelete
  39. Kaneganese,

    Good job, it seems to be alright.

    I think it doesn't matter whether 本島 was "main island" or "this island", anyway it directed Ulleungdo.
    (But it doesn't mean "home island" for Korean fishermen,as anonymous suggested.)

    ReplyDelete
  40. Anonymous7/6/07 01:41

    Pacifist, the quote from the 1903 Black Dragon Document is both Japanese and Koreans call Liancourt "Yangkodo"

    I really don't know where you guys are trying to go with this but it is quite clear. Those who wrote these fishing reports surely considered the Liancourt to be more closely associated with Ulleungdo (Korea) than Japan regardless of who was undertaking the vast majority of the fishing.

    The Black Dragon Fishing manual lists Dokdo under both Ulleungdo, and Gangwan Province Korea. The manual you are now citing also places Dokdo under the heading of Chosun's Ulleungdo in the index AND the chapter in the book. This doesn't look good for Japan at all.


    These facts strongly work against Japanese claims that Liancourt was considered part of Japan, and support the belief Japanese thought of Liancourt as an appended island to Ulleungdo hence the term "main island or home island"

    Kanganese, those who hunted seals "Nakai et al" also used Ulleungdo for a base. Do you think they travelled 160 kms straight, sat on a couple of rocks for four days and then travelled 160 kms back home again? You'd be exhausted from exposure.

    One more thing, this document proves even at this point, the Japanese continued to call Liancourt island Matsushima which kills assertions by some on this forum that Japanese maps showing Matsushima do not refer to Dokdo. It supports Japanese documents that say Matsushima was Usando.

    From a legal standpoint. The Japanese conducting these fishing activties were illegally squatting on Ulleungdo at this time. If not, they were residents and as good as Korean citizens. This doc hurts Japan more than helps them.

    ReplyDelete
  41. anonymous,

    As I mentioned before, Koreans were only hired by Japanese sea hunters.

    The waterway magazine was made for Japanese ships to voyage safely. It is not a book of territorial claim.

    If you want to claim that "Dokdo is ours", you should prove that they really knew, used and owned it, but there is no documents, no maps in Korea. The name Dokdo appeared first time on record in 1903 and it was Japanese document, not Korean's.

    Truth is that until then in 1903 when Koreans were hired by Japanese, Koreans didn't know about the island. If you want to refute, please bring evidences to show that Koreans knew, used and owned it.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Annonymous,

    One of the purposes of this report was to describe the situation of Japanese residents (本邦在留人) living on Ulleung in 1902. One of the things the Japanese residents were doing was fishing Liancourt Rocks, which "Japanese residents on Ulleungdo" still called "Matsushima." The fact that the report says there were no Korean fishermen on Ulleungdo suggests that Koreans had no connection with Liancourt Rocks, unless it was as hired hands on Japanese vessels. The Japanese were fishing Liancourt Rocks from Ulleungdo out of convenience, not because the rocks belonged to Korea.

    The report does not say that Liancourt Rocks were Korean territory. In fact, it suggests that the rocks were not Korean territory since there were no Korean names given for the rocks. Why were the Korean names for other places on Ulleungdo mentioned, but not for Liancourt Rocks?

    The Japanese used the name Matsushima (松島) to refer to both Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks. It was a Korean, An Yong-bok, who said that the Japanese refers to Usando as Matsushima. Korean maps and documents tell us, however, that Usando was Ulleungdo's neighboring island of Jukdo, not Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo).

    Finally, you need to reread your law books because I am a resident of Korea, yet I am still an American citizen.

    This document supports the claim that it was the Japanese who fished and had a relationship with Liancourt Rocks, not the Koreans.

    ReplyDelete
  43. Another record of fishing activities on Liancourt Rocks.
    The report of survey on Oct12.1902
    By the Hiroshima water industry experiment station.Log book of 庚子号.
    1902.10.12水産試験場報告[第1冊]第2号(広島県水産試験場) 朝鮮海漁場調査庚子号航海日誌 
    Logbook of 庚子号

    i)10月12日(元山→松島)松島は無人島なるも本邦魚師網業者の納屋を構えたるを以て寄航調査し且流網を試みたるも無漁
    (Navigate;from Wonsan to Matsushima)
    Matsushima is inhabitant island and Japanese fishing company worker stayed with small temporary lodge and stopover to survey using by drift? net but no result.
    流網
    http://www.fishworld.or.jp/fisherman/ryoushi/knowledge/jiten/jh07.html

    ii)10月16日(元山→長興川)本日松島付近で鯛及延縄を試み漁獲ありたり午后一時出発 午后五時碇泊
    Today try to catching Carp bream using Haenawa-system and got the fishes.Departure at 1PM

    延縄Haenawa
    http://www.fishworld.or.jp/fisherman/ryoushi/knowledge/jiten/jh08.html
    --------------------
    Name of Liancourt Rocks
    1902 通商彙纂"
    Japanese りゃんこ島/松島(Lyanco/Matsushima)
    Korean  null

    1902 庚子号航海日誌
    Japanese 松島(Matsushima)
    Korean  null

    1903『韓海通漁指針』
    Japanese やんこ(Yanco)
    Korean  やんこ(Yanco)

    1904.09 戦艦新高の日誌
    Japanese やんこ(Yanco)
    Korean  獨島(Dokdo)

    Every record above,there are nothing discription of Usando and Sokdo.If Liancourt Rocks be Usando,Korean would call it Usando or Sokdo.In addition,if korean did fishing activities on or around Liancourt Rocks,Japanese would record the "name of fish" and "which system to catch fish by Korean",but nothing record.

    ReplyDelete
  44. Sry for double post and the 松島 on the Logbook庚子号 above seems not to be Liancourt Rocks.
    In the logbook,it has 4 hour from 松島 to 長興川.Im not sure which place in 長興川.But it is about 127 seamiles from Liancourt Rocks to the nearest places in the Korean peninsula.Ships around 1900,it might be sail speed around 20-25knot/hours.So I guess this 松島 wasn't liancourt Rocks sorry.

    ReplyDelete
  45. GTOMR,

    Thanks, it's interesting.

    (minor correction (?) : inhabitant → uninhabitant)

    ReplyDelete
  46. GTOMR,

    To follow is my tentative translation of the sentences you mentioned:

    松島は無人島なるも本邦魚師網業者の納屋を構えたるを以て寄航調査し且流網を試みたるも無漁
    Although Matsushima is an uninhibited island, a Japanese fishery net trader built a shed there so we called at the port and investigated, trying a drift net but couldn't catch any fish.


    本日松島付近で鯛及延縄を試み漁獲ありたり午后一時出発 午后五時碇泊
    Today we tried sea-bream fishing and a longline fishing around Matsushima and got some fish. We departed at 1pm and dropped anchor at 5pm.

    BTW GTOMR, could you please tell us about the last portion of the sentence above?
    It stated that they departed at 1pm, was it the time they departed Wonsan? And was "5pm" the time they arrived and anchored at Matsushima? (It took 4 hours from Wonsan to Matsushima, right?)

    ReplyDelete
  47. Pacifist,
    Could you proof read this? And there are some 漢字 I couldn't read...

    Translation of Section 1
    (p43 L1-11)
    付録
    韓国鬱陵島事情
    地勢、在島韓民の情況、物産、船舶碇泊場、本邦在留人概況、商況、漁業の情況、気候、伝染病、組合規約 (外務省通商局)
    第一、鬱陵島の地勢
    鬱陵島は江原道蔚鎮を距る四拾里全洋に在る一弧島にして周回九里半余其形状不等三角形に似たり全島の海岸は断岩絶壁にして渚浜少く随て大船巨船を入るへき良港なく僅かに道洞、苧洞 其他二三の小湾小曲江あるのみ而して沿岸の海底は多くは岩石にして船舶の投錨碇泊に便ならすと云へり

    Appendix
    Ulleundo in Korea affairs
    Geography, Korean on the island affairs, products, moorage for boats, the general situation of Japanese residents, business conditions, fishing industry condition, climate, epidemic, a union charter (Department of Trade, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

    Section 1 - Geography of Ulleundo
    Ulleundo is a isolated island 40-ri from 江原道蔚鎮 and the circumference is about 9-ri and a half. The shape of the island is similar to the inequal triangle. The seashore of whole island is precipitous cliff and the the beach is rare. Thus there is no good harbour for a vessel (huge ship). There are only few small bay or small carved inlet like 道洞、苧洞 etc. And since the most of the bottom of the coast is rocks, it is not suit for the anchorage.

    (p43 L12-22)→already posted
    (p43 L23-34)
    羅里山は本島の中央にあり連山重嶂中最も高く聳へ大樹喬木鬱蒼として天を覆ひ降雪は四時結氷して溶解せさるにより其の山?に入れは夏尚ほ寒しと云ふ。而して其半腹に約八丁四方平坦なる地ありて韓民等農耕に従事すと雖とも瘠地にして大豆麦作に適さるを以て大概唐黍を作り居れり、錐山は羅里洞の北方に突起し羅里山に比すれは稍高らすと雖とも崔嵬たる岩山にして頂上に樹木繁生し海岸に聳立するを以て人皆之を本島の高山と称せり、其他蓊鬱たる連峰島中最大なる渓流は南陽川、?霞川の二川にして之に亞くものは?伏、竹岩等の諸流とす、その渓流は四時涸るることなく水質純良なるを以て島民一般飲料用に供セリ

    羅里山 locates in the center of the island and it is the highest of other range of mountains and peaks。Big trees covers the mountain thickly and screen the sky of the forest. Fallen snow freezed through four seasons and don't melt, then if you went into the shady(?) place of the mountain, it is cold even in Summer. In the halfway up a mountain, there is a flat place about 8-丁square, and Koreans are engaged in farming. But it is a barren soil and not suitable for soy beans or wheat, thus they often plant corns. 錐山 stick out to the north of 羅里山, but it is a bit smaller than 羅里山. But the mountain is very rocky mountais and the top is covered with trees. And because the mountain rise near the shore, eeryone calls this is the high mountain on the island. As for others there are chain of mountains thick with trees and grass, but no one has bothered to name each of them. The biggest torrent is those two which are 南陽川、?霞川 and streams like ?伏、竹岩 etc connect to those torrents. Since those torrents never dried up through the four seasons and the quality of the water is very high, it provides the islander general drinking water.

    ReplyDelete
  48. Kaneganese,

    Thank you so much.

    The Chinese characters you couldn't read are all old characters... they are hard to read for everyone.

    The first ?from 山? resembles 叡 but the lower part is 土, so the shape itself resembles 堅. But I don't know. The whole meaning of the translated text looks not bad, though.

    The second ? from ?霞川 is the old type of 台, I think. So the name of the river must be 台霞川.

    The third ? from ?伏 resembles 遇 or 通 but again I don't know.

    BTW, as to 在島韓民の情況 (Korean on the island affairs), how do you think if one translated it as "the situation of Koreans on the island"? (ただの直訳ですが)

    ReplyDelete
  49. Here is another report from the 50th issue of the same book 通商彙纂. (It was published on 3rd September 1905, the following report was written on 31st July 1905 - anyway this was written 5 months after the incorporation of Takeshima/Liancourt rocks)


    鬱陵島現況

    「トド」と称する海獣は、鬱陵島より東南約二十五里の位置にあるランコ島に棲息し、昨年頃より鬱陵島民之を捕獲し始めたり。捕獲期間は、4月より9月に至る6ヶ月間にして、漁船1組に付き猟手及び水夫等約10人にて、平均1日約5頭を捕獲すと云う。而して、本事業に従事する者30人あり。漁船3組あり。又「トド」1頭に付き、現今市価は平均3円なり。

    Sea animal known as sea lion lives on Ranko-to, which is located 25-ri south-east of Ulleungdo. The islanders of Ulleungdo began hunting them since last year. The duration of hunting is 6 months from April to September, and one fish boat needed 10 people including hunters and sailors and they catch 5 sea lions in one day on the average. About 30 people are engaging in this business. There are 3 fish boats for the business. The market price of sea lion is 3 yen per on the average.

    - - - - - - - - - - -
    The consul (or the consular staff) doesn't seem to be wise enough to know that the island became a part of Shimane prefecture 5 months ago.

    This report was written as the third part just after the second part, "Business of Japanese on the island". I wonder whether "the islanders of Ulleungdo" mean Japanese people on the island or Korean people on the island.

    ReplyDelete
  50. Anonymous7/6/07 23:30

    Gerry, the Japanese fished from Ulleungdo not because of convenience but out of pure necessity. We're talking the era of steam boats and sailing here. Even fishing from Ulleungdo was seen as difficult. It was still next to impossible to slog 160 kms to Oki, catch or hunt seals and then return. Weather, drinking water and the drying or curing of your catch necessitated a nearby or home island to operate out of. These men were using small boats, only about 30 feet long not massive trawlers.

    Remember another fact. At this time, it was illegal for Japanese to purchase or settle on Korean land. It wasn't for years later that Japanese were allowed to settle outside of treaty designated areas. Whether or not the Koreans were always fishing Liancourt does not mean they didn't consider the rocks part of their territory Gerry. You are trying to determine Korean territorial perceptions by citing Japanese documents.

    It also seems by this report, that the Japanese were mostly seasonal residents of Ulleungdo. Being transient, it is not possible they considered Liancourt as part of Japan. These reports along with the Black Dragon Fishing manual that has information from the same year shows those Japanese intimately involved with Liancourt Rocks showed a much stronger bond to Korea on a number of key points.

    First the Black Dragon manual lists Yangkdo (Liancourt Rocks) under both Gangwan Province and being bracketed below Ulleungdo as though Liancourt was appended to Ulleungdo. The document is here.
    Dragon Document

    The Black Dragon Fishing Manual was published in January 1st 1903 meaning the information was from 1902. It would be interesting to know the date of the information gathered about Yangkodo but I'm wagering it was from even before 1902.

    Notice the above report calls Ulleungdo "a base island" or "main island". If Ulleungdo was the main island then what was Dokdo? It is obvious Japanese fishermen considered Liancourt as appended to Ulleungdo by the information combined on these documents.

    I'm not going so far to say these documents are valid basis for legal claim. However, together they paint a clear picture of the territorial perceptions of those Japanese who frequented the region. They certainly did not consider Liancourt Rocks as part of Japan and refer to Dokdo as appended to Ulleungdo. Pretty much a death sentence for Japan's historical claim prior to 1905.

    ReplyDelete
  51. Kaneganese & Pacifist,

    You can reference the following map for some of those Chinese characters since they are included in some placenames on the map and since the Japanese pronunciation is written beside them.

    Link to Map

    Good Kaneganese.

    ReplyDelete
  52. Annonymous,

    There were Japanese who lived on Ulleungdo, and there were Japanese who came there seasonally. The document speaks as if most of the fishermen came there to fish the waters of Ulleungdo, not Liancourt Rocks. It suggests that there were only a few "Japanese fishermen" who went to Liancourt Rocks to fish.

    Another fact is that there are no Korean maps or documents to suggest that Koreans considered Liancourt Rocks Korean territory or even knew about the rocks before the Japanese told them about them. The Japanese had been mapping Liancourt Rocks for centuries, yet there is not even one old Korean map that shows the rocks. In fact, Korean geography books very clearly put Liancourt Rocks outside the boundary of Korean territory.

    Also, there is no logic to your following statement:

    "Being transient, it is not possible they considered Liancourt as part of Japan."

    The Black Dragon book, which is a Japanese book, by the way, only mentions Liancourt Rocks in the section about Ulleungdo. It does not say the rocks are appended to Ulleungdo or belong to Korea. In fact, it used the Japanese name for the rocks, "Yang-ko-do," not a Korean name. It used the Korean name for Ulleungdo, but it did not use a Korean name for Liancourt Rocks.

    If you are a Japanese living on Ulleungdo and you go to Liancourt Rocks to fish for four or five days, after you finish you will return to Ulleungdo, which would be consider the "base island" or "main island" or whatever. It does not mean the Japanese fishermen considered Liancourt Rocks "obviously" appended to Ulleungdo. It only means they were using Ulleungdo as a base to fish Liancourt Rocks.

    The fact that Liancourt Rocks are not mentioned in Korean documents or shown on any Korean maps before the Japanese incorporated them in 1905 means that Korea did not even have a claim to sentence to death.

    ReplyDelete
  53. anonymous,

    As to 韓海通漁指針, as its title shows, it was a guidebook about fishery in Korea, not a book for claiming territory.

    Liancourt rocks were only included in it because Japanese fishermen used to go fishing at around both Ulleungdo and Liancourt rocks.

    Did you look at the map of Korea which was printed at the beginning of the book? It naturally included Ulleungdo but not Liancourt rocks.

    You can see all the book at here:
    http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/BIBibDetail.php?tpl_wid=WBPL110&tpl_wish_page_no=1&tpl_select_row_no=1&tpl_hit_num=1&tpl_bef_keyword=&tpl_action=&tpl_search_kind=1&tpl_keyword=&tpl_s_title=&tpl_s_title_mode=BI&tpl_s_title_oper=AND&tpl_s_author=&tpl_s_author_mode=BI&t

    (Click the red button)
    It is from Japanese National Diet Library.

    ReplyDelete
  54. anonymous,

    The book has also an aspect of disadvanatage to you.

    If Koreans call Liancourt rocks as Yanko-do in 1902, what about the 1900 ordinance which included the name of Seokdo?

    Koreans insist that Seokdo in the ordinance was Dokdo without any ground.
    But as you saw it, the report in 韓海通漁指針 didn't say that Koreans called it as Dokdo in 1902.

    Do you admit that the word Dokdo was created after the ordinance? Truth is that they created the word in around 1904, as Niitaka reported.
    And the 1899 map of Korean empire didn't include Liancourt rocks.
    Then how do you insist that "Dokdo is ours"?

    ReplyDelete
  55. (p43 L35- p44 L27)
    第二、在島韓民の状況
    本島韓民は古来永住の者なく今を距る廿一年前江原道より始て裵季周、金大木、卞敬云、田士日の四名渡航し同行者は協力を以て山間を開拓し畠地を作りて農耕を業とせり、然るに其翌年に至り江原道江陵地方より黄鐘海、崔島守、田士雲、金花椒、洪奉堯、李孫八及全羅道地名不詳張敬伊の七名来島せし以来年々歳々江原慶尚咸鏡全羅の四道より移住するもの多くして何れも各地に散在し精励以て開墾を為し専ら農業を営み漁業に従事するものは僅少なりとす而して本島の東南面地質黒色にして朝鮮本土に比すれは地味好良なるも西北面は瘠地なるを以て農作は豊穣ならすと云ふ
    一般の風俗は寔に淳朴質素にして凶暴、残忍の儕輩なく到る処往々書堂を設け児童を集めて孔孟の教を授くるの村夫子漢学一般に行はる故に人情温厚誠実にして彼我貿易上においても曾て紛櫌を醸したることなく在留本邦人とは常に直接の関係を有するにより至て円滑なりとす
    一、村名戸数人口(×印は本邦人戸口数)
    (省略)
    の二十七ヶ村に小別す人家は多く渓間に沿ひ或は畠中海岸に三々伍々散在して人煙稠密ならす僅に羅里洞に三十戸天府洞に十六戸集合せるを見るのみ全島の韓民は昨年の調査に拠れは四百四十七戸なりしも現今は五百五十六戸となり人口三千三百四十名を有すと云ふ(本邦人在留民県別人員及営業種別併に昨年度輸出入表を添付す)

    There are no Korean on this island who live from ancient times. 21 years from now, four first immigrants , 裵季周、金大木、卞敬云、田士日 came from 江原道. Those companion reclaimed land between the mountains, made a farming land and made a living on farming. Then next year, 黄鐘海、崔島守、田士雲、金花椒、洪奉堯、李孫八 came from 江原道江陵地方 and 張敬伊 from somewhere in 全羅道, all together 7 came to the island. Since then, in every year, many people immigrated from four provinces like 江原慶尚咸鏡全羅, but they scattered each places to live and cultivated the land earnestly and wholly engage in farming. There are only a few who engage in fishery. Then the soil in south-east part of this island was black and if you compare this to the soils in mainland of Choson, it is better. But north-western part is barren land and the farming is not productive.
    General people's manner is very unspoilt and simple and there are no brutal or cruel people. They organize learning places every where and call pupils together and teach teach Confucianism. Generally, people learn Chinese, so their human nature is gentle and reliable. Thus our trade goes smooth without any conflicts, and Japanese residents and Korean islanders keep direct relationship smoothly.
    No.1 the name of village, te number of houses and population (×means Japanese number of houses)
    (omission)
    There are many houses scattered in those 27 villages and many of them are along the the land between valleys, in the farm and on the seashore. Those houses can be found here and there in groups , so people lives unovercrowding. Only places like 30 houses in 羅里洞, and 16 in 天府洞 are living together. Korean on the whole island counts 447 households based on last year's survey, but today, it is 556 households and 3340 in population.(As for Japanese population by each home provinces, by each industry and the table of import and export is attached.)

    ReplyDelete
  56. I forgot to put the title.
    Section 2 - the situation of Koreans on the island

    Pacifist, thank you. Your translation makes much sence. And again, please proof read above if I didn't made big mistakes.

    ReplyDelete
  57. Anonymous8/6/07 01:47

    Pacifist, I don't cite these Japanese documents to determine Korean territorial perceptions what I'm saying is these documents are a nail in the coffin for Japanese historical claims prior to 1905.

    Looking at the manner of Japanese (illegal) activites on Ulleungdo were used to support their activities on Dokdo we can be 100 percent guaranteed that none of these people considered Dokdo part of Japan.

    The manner is which Japanese documents consistently refer to Liancourt only through Ulleungdo is proof enough that they considered Dokdo an appended island of Ulleungdo. It was simply not possible to fish Dokdo from the Japanese mainland at this time and it was known for ages that Ulleungdo was illegal to travel to.

    Pacifist, Dokdo went by the 2 names you mentioned from Japanese documents. Did Koreans have other names for Dokdo, I believe so. After all the residents came from many other places. Did you notice the Japanese article mentioned residents from Chollanamdo? There were some on this forum who dismissed this dialect as impossible because no residents on Ulleungdo came from this region. You were wrong on this point as well.

    Another thing Pacifist, I'm not Korean. Dokdo isn't "ours" it's theirs. And I don't but everything that comes down the pike from the Korean museums etc. But what I see is with all of these Japanese documents about Dokdo surely one of them should be a clear indicator of Japanese possession of Dokdo but this is never the case.

    Time and time again Japanese documents work against Japan. They either show Japan did not consider Liancourt to be part of Japan, or they strongly suggest they considered the islands as part of Ulleungdo and thus Korean territory.

    Gerry can have a field day with some Koreans who are not educated on this issue when they simply parrot what they've been told. But nobody on these Japanese Takeshima forums can build a solid case for Japan's ownership of Dokdo, surely nothing worth dragging this to the ICJ.

    Funny thing you should mention the Niitaka's logbooks Pacifist. You can see that her logbooks show the Japanese Navy was planning to build military structures on Dokdo even back in September 1904. It also shows these military plans were part of the same process of land appropriation going on Ulleungdo/Korea at the same time.
    Japan's Takeshima X Files

    However, it is the Tsushima's logbooks that destroy Japan's 1905 claim to Dokdo. These are coming soon.

    ReplyDelete
  58. Kaneganese,

    I have removed the Japanese from the post and copied it here, thinking that it might be better to create a separate post for the Japanese, which we can just link to from the document. That way we can put it with the other Japanese documents. What do you think?

    地勢ハ山岳連亘シテ平地担路至テ少シ往昔ハ全島森々タル樹木繁茂シ蓋し晝尚ホ暗キノ觀アリシモ今ヤ島民ノ繁殖スルニ従ヒ海岸付近ハ一體ニ伐木開拓シテ農作地トナセリテツセミ島ハ臥達里ノ前洋ニ在リ本邦人之ヲ竹島と俗称ス周回三拾丁余「タブ」女竹繁スト雖トモ飲料水ナキヲ以テ移住スル モノナシト云フ、又亭石浦ノ海上ニ雙燭石及島牧ノ島峡アリ周回二十丁本邦人之ヲ観音島ト称シ其岬ヲ観音岬ト云ヒ其間ヲ観音ノ瀬戸ト呼ヘリ、又雙燭石ハ三岩高 ク樹立スルニヨリ三本ノ名アリ、其他 周園ノ海岸ニ数箇ノ峻巖アリシモ一モ名称ナク唯タ光岸ノ前面ニ俵島アレトモ至ヲ小島ナリトス

    ReplyDelete
  59. Anonymous8/6/07 07:31

    Some part of the translation seems to be improper to me.

    ============
    韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様ナレトモ毎年全羅道三島地方ヨリ多数ノ漁夫等渡来シテ海岸ニ満生スル若芽ヲ採取セリ

    there are no Korean fishermen on the island except for the Fishermen in the part of 全羅道三島 come to the island every year to collect the wakame seaweed which grow thickly on the seashore.

    =====>

    Korean fishermen can't be seen at all but many fishermen and others come over here from Jeolla Province(全羅道) or Sam Island(三島=巨文島) to gather the brown seaweed which grow thickly on the seashore.
    ===========
    .

    I think the latter is better. What do you think about it?

    ReplyDelete
  60. Kaneganese,

    The translation looks great, thanks for your endeavour.

    If I might add only one thing, 農作は豊穣ならすと云ふ (the last part of the first group of paragraphs) means a hearsay, so I think it's better to add "they say" or "it has been said" or something like that. (It's a trivial thing though.)

    ReplyDelete
  61. anonymous,

    You are not Korean, really? ...So I noticed that you look like someone whom all of us know well...one of our old friends who has a frog like face. Aren't you?

    Both of the two translated texts are not bad, the second one has meaning of 皆無 (not at all) but it lacks 毎年 (every year). The big difference is about the 全羅道三島地方. You may know about the Korean geography so that your translation may be better than the first one, as Kaneganese and I don't know well about them.

    ReplyDelete
  62. Thanks, pacifist

    I agree it is a hearsay.

    Anonymous,
    韓人漁夫ハ"皆無(かいむ)"ノ有様ナレトモ literally means there are "absolutely no" Korean fishermen. And "漁夫等" means same as "達", which makes plural. It does't mean "others" in this context. So, I think "There are absolutely no Korean fishermen at all on the island, but every year, many fishermen come over here from Jeolla Province(全羅道) or Sam Island(三島=巨文島) to gather the brown seaweed which grow thickly on the seashore." might be better. What do you think?

    By the way, does Wakame seaweed means "blown seaweed" in English? The Latin name of Wakame is Undaria Pinnatifida.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Undaria_pinnatifida

    And I think you are too soon to conclude anything yet, especially you are not able to Japanese text properly at all. I am going to translate all of them, you can say whatever you want after reading that. But until then, can we stick to the contents of this document I translated unless it relates to the contents? The suggestion for my translation is very welcome though. It is really interesting for me to know that our ancesters from both countries work and live very functionally and amicablly. There are the description of Japanese looters as you say, but it is really good to read how they tackled against those troubles. And later you will see how they hepled each other.

    But it looks like there were many Koreans who could read and write on the island. I wonder if there are any documents like this in Korean. There were even 郡守 stationed, right? They must have kept the records of the residents and business on the island. You should go and find them. Korean need Korean documents to prove their soverignty afterall. I think you can help them if you want to prove soverignty for them. Japanese are finding old documents bit by bit as I am adding to the news section.

    Gerry,

    I agree that we should separate them because it will be too long. I will make Japanese post later by myself, because it might be better to change Hiragana to Katakana before posting.

    I have read all the contents of this appendix and I must conclude that the "本島" in the last sentence of Section 7 is definately "this island", not "main island", because all of other "本島" actually mean "this island". If the author wanted to mean "main island" only for this word, he must have used "主島", And there is no word "base island" in this document,by the way. As long as there are people who make use of my mistake to distort the contents, I need to change the translation to "this island"correctly because it is more appropriate. To understand what the word really means, you have to read all of the document. Can you change that word in Section 7 and the part in Section 2 which pacifist pointed out?

    By the way there are no mention of Liancourt Rocks in section 1 of Geography, hence it is impossible to say Japanese considered Liancourt Rocks /Matsushima is a "appendix" to Ulleundo or Ulleundo is a main island to Liancourt Rocks from this document to be fair.

    ReplyDelete
  63. Anonymous8/6/07 09:30

    "There are absolutely no Korean fishermen at all on the island, but every year, many fishermen come over here from Jeolla Province(全羅道) or Sam Island(三島=巨文島) to gather the brown seaweed which grow thickly on the seashore."

    ------->
    You added unnessesary word 'absolutely'. Anyway, OK.
    Does "等" mean plural number? Oh, OK.

    "Jeolla Province(全羅道) or Sam Island(三島=巨文島)" is my mistake.
    "Sam Island(三島=巨文島) in Jeolla Province(全羅道)" will be correct.

    Sorry for my name 'Anonymous'.

    ReplyDelete
  64. Annonymous,

    In the phrase 韓人漁夫ハ皆無, the characters 皆無 means "absolutely no" (전혀 없음), so even though "absolutely no" and "at all" are redundant in Kaneganese's sentence, the sentence is apparently saying there were "absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island (Ulleungdo)."

    Thanks for the info about 巨文島 (거문도).

    ReplyDelete
  65. Gerry,

    The pronunciation of "Mount Nari" (羅里山) in the text should be "Mount Rari", 羅 is pronounced as "ra" in Japan.

    ReplyDelete
  66. Kaneganese,

    Very good point about Liancourt Rocks not being mentioned in the Geography section of the document. Jukdo, Gwaneumdo, and other rocky islets are mentioned, not not Liancourt Rocks. I have now added that observation to my post.

    Pacifist,

    I have now given the Japanese pronunciation of 羅里山, and mentioned that it is pronounced as "Narisan" in Korean.

    ReplyDelete
  67. Gerry,

    Thanks a lot for your swift job!

    ReplyDelete
  68. To Kaneganese
    The logbook of 庚子号 recorded as follows;

    http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/BIImgFrame.php?JP_NUM=40063930&VOL_NUM=00001&KOMA=9&ITYPE=0
    12OCT1902
    05:00Am Departure at Wonsan元山
    14:00PM Arrival on Matsushima松島
    *about 9Hours/238seamiles.
    (per hour-26.4knot)

    16OCAT1902
    09:00AM Depaerture at Wonsan元山
    13:00PM Departure at Matsushima松島
    17:00PM Arrival on ?長興川.
    (I dont know where is 長興川)
    It tooks less than four hour from Wonsan to Matsushima(4hours/238seamiles=59.5knot)

    Im not sure the speed of this survey ship.I remember estimated sail speed of battle ship around 1900 might be 20-25Knot/hours.

    ReplyDelete
  69. Sry for double post n inconvinience.
    The link posted above are wrong one.
    Correct link to the log book as follows.
    http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/BIImgFrame.php?JP_NUM=40063930&VOL_NUM=00001&KOMA=9&ITYPE=0

    ReplyDelete
  70. Sry for tripple post
    Im not sure why I can't post the proper link..It might be too long for this blog system?

    http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/BIImgFrame.php?
    JP_NUM=40063930&VOL_NUM
    =00001&KOMA=9&ITYPE=0

    ReplyDelete
  71. Anonymous8/6/07 16:23

    원산시 元山市

    남쪽으로 갈마반도(葛麻半島)가 돌출한 영흥만(永興灣) 남쪽에 위치한다.
    항만 안팎에는 신도(薪島) ·모도(茅島) ·웅도(熊島) ·송도(松島) ·여도(麗島) ·장덕도(長德島) 등 크고 작은 20여 개의 섬이 자연적인 방파제 구실을 한다.

    http://contents.edu-i.org/gongmo/2001/samyou25/study/page1/13.htm

    GTOMR.
    I will not tranlate it.But, It will be helpful.

    ReplyDelete
  72. Anonymous8/6/07 18:19

    Sorry, I was confused between 長興川 and 永興灣.
    And, I will give you a rough(poor) translation
    ====

    원산시 元山市
    Wonsan-shi
    남쪽으로 갈마반도(葛麻半島)가 돌출한 영흥만(永興灣) 남쪽에 위치한다.
    To the south, Kalma-peninsula is located at the southern part of the projected Yeongheung Bay.
    항만 안팎에는 신도(薪島) •모도(茅島) •웅도(熊島) •송도(松島) •여도(麗島) •장덕도(長德島) 등 크고 작은 20여 개의 섬이 자연적인 방파제 구실을 한다.
    In and out of that bay, there are more than 20 islands – big or small - such as Shin-do(薪島) •Mo-do(茅島) •Woong-do(熊島) •Song-do(松島) •Yeo-do(麗島) •Jangdeok-do(長德島), which make roles of the natural breakwaters.
    ========

    And, One more link about 長興川.

    http://preview.britannica.co.kr/spotlights/nkorea/geography/b03n2940b.html

    낙원군
    Nakwon-kun
    樂園郡 : 함경남도 남동부 동해안에 있는 군.
    Kun(county) located in the East shore of South-estern part of the Southern Hamkyeong-do(province)
    신풍천•장흥천 등이 남부를 지나 동해로 흘러든다.
    Shinpoong-stream, Jangheung-stream and so forth flow into the East Sea passing the southern part.

    ReplyDelete
  73. Gerry,

    Sorry, I couldn't answer your question about the streams quickly, since I was reffering pacifist through e-mail to make sure. because I think I mistranslated the sentence. As for "連峰島中最大なる渓流は南陽川、台霞川の二川にして之に亞くものは遍伏、竹岩等の諸流とす", "The two largest rushing steams on the island are Namyang Stream (南陽川) and ?ha Stream (台霞川), followed by two streams like bok flow(遍伏) and Jukam (竹岩) flow. " might be better. That means latter two flows are smaller than the former two, but they are not flow into the formers. But I am still waiting for pacifist's answer to confirm. Sorry for confusion and mistakes.

    By the way, I am going to be busy from tomorrow morning to Monday night, and might not be around Tokyo to answer quickly, but I will continue translating and try accessing to the site as much as possible. Sorry for any convenience.

    Everyone,
    I translated the section 3. It is short, but toughest so far. The names of the products were very difficult for me. I need more information on this section. But here goes.

    ReplyDelete
  74. 第三、本島物産
    槻(欅:けやき)梅、五葉松、黄柏(きはだ)、「テンポ」梨、「タブ」、「ブナ」、山?、桐、白檀、椿、桜、木耳、黐(モチノキ)、桑、黄柏皮、大豆、大麦、胡豆(そらまめ)、小麦、馬鈴薯、鮑、鯣(するめ)、海苔、天草、甘(籊:てき=やまどり?)、郭鳥等ナリ
    参考(昨年収穫セシ大豆六千石、胡豆二千石、大麦四千石、小麦三千石以上トス)郭鳥ハ其ノ形状鷗(かもめ)ニ類似シ昼間三十海里以外ニ遊泳シ夜間本島森林ニ生息ス土民ハ暗夜山上ニ焚火ヲ為シ四方ヨリ集合スルヲ撲殺シ油ヲ搾リテ点(?)燈ニ用ヒ肉ハ乾シテ食用ニ供ス

    Section 3 Products
    (槻梅)?,Japanese White Pine ,Phellodendron, "tempo"pear, "tabu"tree(Machilus thunbergii), Japanese beech, ? , Empress Tree, Sandalwood, Camellia, Cerry, Jew's Ear Fungus, Ilex integra, Phellodendron Bark, Mulberry, Soya Beans, Barley, Broad Bean, Wheat、Potato, Abalone, Dried Squid, laver, Ceylon Moss, Copper Pheasant?, Cuckoo etc
    Referance(Last year, the yield was more than 6 thousand_koku for soya beans, 2 thousand_ koku for Broad Bean, 4 thoudsand_koku for Barley and 3 thousand_koku for Wheat.) Cuckoo looks like seagull, and they fly outside of the 30 nautical_ri in in the day time and stay on the island in the night. Natives make a fire on the mountain, and they beat the birds to death whem they gather. Then they squeeze the oil out for the lamp, and dry the meat for food.

    ReplyDelete
  75. Kaneganese,

    I didn't know the exact meaning of "亜ク" in the sentence "之に亞くものは遍伏、竹岩等の諸流とす", so I examined Chinese character dictionary and found that it can be read as "つぐ(tsugu)", which is near to "次ぐ(tsugu)", I think.

    At first, I thought it meant that the last two small streams may flow to the two large streams, but it was not right.

    It may only stated that "the second largest streams to the former two rivers are streams from (of?) 遍伏 and 竹岩".

    As to 遍伏、竹岩の諸流, if these two are names of places (they are possibly so.. when you look at the map Gerry indicated), this may mean "stream of 遍伏 and stream of 竹岩".

    ReplyDelete
  76. Kaneganese,

    Sorry, you already translated the part exactly.

    Have a good weekend with your family!

    ReplyDelete
  77. Thank you !, Pacifist

    Gerry,

    I posted Japanese documents, though it is not finished yet. I have to go now, but I will make them better later. If you notice something, you are welcome to change that.

    ReplyDelete
  78. Thank you, Kaneganese.

    Relax and enjoy yourself.

    ReplyDelete
  79. Anonymous10/6/07 01:51

    Kaneganese, Pacifist Gerry GTOMR and others. Good job!! I enjoy you guys' contributions.

    ReplyDelete
  80. pacifist,

    Hi ! I'm back and just finished Section 4 translation now. I know you are busy, but could you proof read this?

    And good job for the Brack Dragon report!

    Section 4 - Boat Moorage
    Initially, it is possible to say that there are absolutely no bay suitable for anchoring on this island, but 道洞 is the best port of all and it has about 70-kenn(127.26m) in width and 10-jin(18.18m) in depth on average. Both shore on east and west of the island are very high and sheer cliff, thus the ships anchor at the 北巌石 and it is only enough for few ships. So the ships which stay for a while should be pulled on the shore while waiting for loading and set sail again. It is easy to suppose that huge ships or vesselsthat cannot enter the bay since it is very narrow, And when strong wind from south-east or south-west rage or blow hard, billow and swell occur and bubble form fly to the houses on the shore worst of all. Though it is really needless to say that ships in the bay get in a high danger of colliding each other when those powerful wind and swelling occur, every ships come to this island stop at this port without exception since there are no other bay. Especially, majority of Japanese stay here and all the cargo for inport and export accumulate here. 苧洞 is a stoppage of a ship which locate on the east side of this island. Though it is extremely narrow and thus it is hard to anchor the ships, it is convenient for ships to call at a port to avoid the south-western wind temporaroy. 沙洞 is not a port, but the bottom of the sea is sandy without rocks or reefs, so it is convenient for ships to anchor and all the steamships anchor there. Though there are other small inlets, all the bottom of the sea are rocky and reefy, so it is said they are not suitable for anchoring and staying ships.
    As listed above, there are no good harbour on this island, thus it is necessary for steamships to change the location or refuge due to the wind direction anytime when it call the port.
    note:1-ken and 1-jin equals 6-shaku which is about 1.818m

    ReplyDelete
  81. Kaneganese,

    Thanks for your endeavour.
    Good job again.

    I write down only I noticed;
    1) I think 北巌石 must be 其巌石, which means "that craggy rock".

    2) 70-kenn (misspelt) should be 70-ken

    3) "jin"(尋) is also read as "hiro", both of which are right (Just for in case Gerry add this word to the site)

    4) I know you abreviated but... the names of 通亀尾, 南陽洞, 台霞洞, 玄浦, 竹岩 were gone.

    ReplyDelete
  82. Pacifist,

    Thank you so much for your correction. No,I didn't abbreviate those names, I simply forgot to put them in sentence...silly me!

    ところで文書の内容を一段下げて表示するにはどうすればよいのですか?今、書き起こしを投稿しているのですが、皆さんとスタイルが違うのに気が付きました。

    ReplyDelete
  83. Kaneganese,

    一段下げるには文章を指定して上の引用マークをクリックすればよいようです。
    引用部の一部をさらに指定して同じようにクリックすればさらに下がって表示されます。

    ReplyDelete
  84. ありがとうございました。

    ReplyDelete
  85. Welcome back Kaneganese, and thanks for the translation. It is late right now, so I will try to add it tomorrow evening.

    Good night.

    ReplyDelete
  86. Gerry,

    When you correct my English, could you please correct my mistakes which pacifist pointed out? Thank you.

    And he also suggested the translation of the title of this document as "The compiled reports of trades compiled by trade department, MOFA"

    ReplyDelete
  87. Gerry.

    Am I welcome here?
    It's mC(myCoree). Let's find the "truth" together.

    Could you fix some improper translation?

    You said :

    There are absolutely no Korean fishermen on the island, but several do come each year from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道) to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) which grows thickly on the seashore. [Samdo (三島) was present-day Keomundo (巨文島).]


    I looked up some dictionaries.
    So, I will show you what I've found.

    日英
    多数の|a great many; a large number of; a lot of⇒たくさん(沢山)

    英日
    several : いくつかの. ▼3つ以上だが, manyまではいかない



    So, my translation is :
    but a great majority of fishermen come each year from Samdo(三島) region in Cholla Province (全羅道).

    It's a minor point. But, you can understand my meaning.

    See you later.

    ReplyDelete
  88. Hi ! myCoree

    You are very welcome here.
    Thank you for the correction. I agree that "多数" means more than several. I don't know what "a great majority of" exactly means, but in this case, "many" describes "多数" accurate. It is not Gerry's fault, but it is mine since I didn't put "many" in initial translation. If you notice anything, let us know. Thanks again.

    ReplyDelete
  89. Hi myCoree,

    Of course, you are welcome.

    I changed the word "several" to "many" in the document. I cannot use "a great majority" because that implies comparison, but only the fishermen from Samdo were mentioned. Do you think it is saying a "great majority of the Korean fishermen came from Samdo," which implies there were Korean fishermen from other places, too?

    ReplyDelete
  90. Hi, Gerry.

    I said "great majority of(=very plentiful)". The word 'great' is my fault owing to some of my hastiness.
    And, I think '地方' is a region or district.
    That's all. I'm on working -_-
    Good evening(?).

    ReplyDelete
  91. Oh, 'a majority of ~' means 'most of ~'. Very sorry.

    再見

    ReplyDelete
  92. Pacifist,

    Could you correct my translation as always,? Thank you.

    第五、本邦在留民ノ概況
    往昔石州濱田,伯州境地方ヨリ本島ニ渡リ樹木ヲ伐採シ輸出セシコトアリ又明治十二三年中大阪ヨリ東京社ハ多数ノ樵夫ヲ連レ来リ槻ヲ伐採シテ京都某寺ノ建築用材ニ供シタルコトアリシモ其頃迄ハ無人島ナリシニヨリ在住シテ製材或ハ漁業ニ従事シタルモノナシト雖トモ其後明治二十五年ニ至リ隠岐ノ国ヨリ製材者数名渡航シ来リ始テ假小屋ヲ構ヘ永住スルニ至レリ然レトモ今ヤ初航者ハ僅ニ製材兼鍛冶業島根県平民脇田庄太郎一名現住シ其他ノ渡航者ハ長クモ七八年ニ過キス、然リ而シテ爾来年々在留民ノ増加スルニ従ヒ不良ノ徒入込ミタルヲ以テ取締ノ必要起リ明治三十年四月日商組合会ナルモノヲ組織シ在留民ノ安全ヲ保持スル為メ二名ノ感じヲ置キ之カ取締ヲ為シタリシモ人口頓(とみ)ニ増加シ従来ノ取締法ニテハ到底整理スヘカラサルノミナラス
    渡航者ハ概ネ無智文盲ノ儕(ともがら)輩ニシテ二尾紛擾(みだれる)ヲ起シ強ハ弱ヲ凌キ智者ハ愚者ヲ欺キ甚シキニ至テハ兇器ヲ携ヘ暴行ヲ加ヘ他人ノ物件ヲ強奪セシコトアルモ之ヲ制止スルモノナク非常ニ良民ヲ苦ムルコト少カラサルニヨリ在留ノ重立タル有志者ハ明治三十四年七月在留民一般ニ議リ更ニ日商組合規約ヲ制定シ無給ノ組合長一名同副長一名有給取締一名ヲ置キ其下ニ名誉議員十五名ヲ選挙シ在留民ノ事故ヲ合議裁決シテ従来の陋(狭い・卑しい)習ヲ一洗セント欲シ刑事ニ係ルモノハ拘置監ヲ設ケ同所ニ留置シテ前非ヲ悔悟セシメ重キ者ハ本邦最近ノ警察署ニ護送スルコトトナシテ規約ヲ励行シタリ、本年一月四日組合員中ニ紛議起リ元組合長ハ組合ヲ破壊セント欲シ自己ノ使役スル多数ノ木挽及ヒ労働者ヲ煽動懐従セシメ脱会ヲ申込ミタリ依テ組長取締等ハ種々調停ノ道ヲ盡(つくす)シタレトモ遂ニ調停スルコト能ハスシテ決然其脱会ヲ認可シタリ、茲(ここ)ニ於テ在島ノ本邦人ハ全然二派ニ分立シ脱会者ハ全員四分ノ三強ニ達シタルニヨリ組合員ハ僅ニ四分ノ一トナリヌ、其後商取引ハ勿論私交上相反目スルニ至リ 日商組合ハ実に萎微振ハサリシモ飽(あ・く)迄正義ヲ主唱シテ多数ノ反対当ニ屈従セス維持シタリシカ外務省ヨリ警察官駐在所ヲ設置セラルルコトトナリシ以来本年四月二十三日続々前非ヲ悔ヒ再ヒ入会ヲ申込ミタルニ付組合員モ其請ヲ入レ脱会者ヲシテ悉ク入会セシメタリト云フ、而シテ本年四月二十八日以降ハ警察官駐在所創設セシニヨリ従来ノ取締規約ヲカイセイスルコトニ決定セリ

    Section 5 - The General Situation of Japanese Residents
    Long time ago, there were people from Hamada of Sekishuuwho(石州濱田) and Sakai of Hakushuu(伯州境) came to this island and cut the trees and exported. And during the 12-13th years of Meiji, (1880-1881) the Tokyo company took many wood cutter from Osaka to cut Keyaki trees and provided those trees as building materials to a certain temple in Kyoto, But since this island was uninhabited in those years, there were no one who reside to engage in lumbering or fishering. But later, when it get to the year of Meiji 25(1893), a few lumberers from Oki came over and build a temporary shed and finally resided permanentlly. But now, it is only one lumberer and smith Wakita Shotaro(脇田庄太郎), a commoner from Shimane Prefecture who still lives here, and other passengers lives here for no more than 7-8 years. Then , the more the people came and live here these days since then, naturally, the more bad people came in. So the necessity for control (or regulation) occured, and it lead people to organize the so-called Japanese association of commerce(日商組合会) to keep the safty of residents and appointed two person for the duty. But the population growed rapidly, and it was impossible to sort the problem by the currrent law of control. Moreover, since the most passengers were ignorant and illitarate fellow, they parted into two groups, and strong surpass the weak, the wise tricks the stupid and in the extreme case, there is a incident that bad one with dangerous weapon forced to seize the property. And those good people were deeply distressed by those bad guys though there were no one who could restraint those. Thus, in the year of Meiji 34 (1902), July, people in a important role who concerned in the matter held a consult with ordinary people and dicided to enact the statute of the association for the associaation once more and agreed to appoint a head without saraly, an assistant head without saraly, one paid superintendent, and to elect 15 honoured assemblymen under them in order to settle the problems and incidents through the process of council and judgement so that they could clear the old bad habit. The association made huge efforts to follow the statute such as put those with criminal case into the detention center they newly set to make them repent what they had done was wrong or sent the criminals with serious crime back to the nearest Police station in homeland. On the 4th Jan, this year, the dispute between two groups occured. The former head of the association tried to distrupt the association, agitated and won many lumberers and workers who work for him over to his side, made them leave the association. The present head tried to do everything through many kinds of arbitration, but he failed to settle the issue and accepted their leave decisively in the end. Thus, all the Japanese residents on the island parted into two groups and people who left the association was more than 3/4 now, making the remained union member only 1/4. Later, they became hostile each other not only in the commercial situation, but also in the normal communication. Though the association became shrink and less prosperous, they maintained the justice to the last and didn't succumbed to the opposition by the majority. Then on 23th April this year, the MOFA decided to establish the police substation, and since then, people who regretted what they had done and applied to re-enter the association one after another. The association accepted those applications and allowed all of them to become the member again. Then since 28th April this year, they decided to change the part of superintendent of the statute due to the installment of the police substation.

    ReplyDelete
  93. Kaneganese,

    Thanks for your endeavour.

    I will write down waht I noticed;

    1) keyaki tree (欅 or 槻)is zelcova tree in English.

    2) this maybe a simple misspelling: Hamada of Sekishuuwho(石州濱田) SHOULD BE hamada of Sekishu

    3) I think that if you put the word "remaining" onto the following sentence "it is only one lumberer and smith Wakita Shotaro(脇田庄太郎)", it would be more understandable...just my opinion:

    "it is only one remaining lumberer and smith Wakita Shotaro..."

    or add some words "who originally resided..." because it lacks the word " 初航者ハ"

    4) You'd better add the date "In April, the 30th year of Meiji (1897)" to "and it lead people to organize the so-called Japanese association of commerce(日商組合会)..." because it lacks the words "明治三十年四月".

    5) a incident → an incident
    (I always do the same mistake, so don't mind!)

    6) "who concerned in the matter held a consult with ordinary people and dicided to enact the statute of the association for the associaation once more "

    there are two association in the sentence.

    And I think "once more" was a translation of "更ニ, but I think this "更ニ" means "and then". They consulted with ordinary people, "and then" enacted the statute...

    7) "Then since 28th April this year, they decided to change the part of superintendent of the statute due to the installment of the police substation".

    I couldn't understand "superintendent" at first, the original word is "取締規約"...I think 取締 is management, control, or regulation or supervision. in my opinion, regulation is suitable here, so to follow is amy tentative translation:

    "Then since 28th April this year, they decided to change the statute concerning regulations due to..."
    How do you think?

    Kaneganese, these are just my opinions, maybe I'm wrong.

    It's too late. Good night.

    ReplyDelete
  94. Thank you, Pacifist.
    2) Sekishuuwho... that was horrible.
    6) I was not sure if it means they renewed an old one or made a new one which didn't excist before. But I think you are right. There is nothing to indicate there were a statute before.
    7) I agree"取締規約"in this case definately doesn't means superintendent.

    Thanks again and have a good night!

    ReplyDelete
  95. Kaneganese,

    I have checked your latest translation, but I was unsure of certain parts, especially in the second paragraph. For example, was Wakita Shotaro(脇田庄太郎) a blacksmith? Also, is the word "passengers" referring "transients" or "temporary workers"? I don't think a person who has lived in a place for seven or eight years is not a transient. Please look over my translation to see if I understood the meaning correctly.
    -----------------

    Section 5 - General Situation of Japanese Residents

    A long time ago, people from Hamada of Sekishuuwho (石州濱田) and Sakai of Hakushuu (伯州境) came to this island to cut and export the trees. During the 12th and 13th years of Meiji (1880-1881), a Tokyo company took many woodcutters from Osaka there to cut Keyaki trees, which were provided as building materials for a certain temple in Kyoto. Since the island was uninhabited in those years, there was no one there engaged in lumbering or fishering, but later, in the 25th year of Meiji 25( 1893), a few lumberers from Oki came over, build a temporary shed, and finally started residing permanentlly.

    Now, there is only one lumberer and blacksmith, Wakita Shotaro(脇田庄太郎), a commoner from Shimane Prefecture who still lives here from that time. Others have come and have lived here for no more than seven or eight years. As more and more people came to live here, it was only natural that bad people also came, which created a need for regulation. This lead people to organize the so-called, Japanese Association of Commerce (日商組合会), which appointed two people to help protect the residents. However, as the population contiued to grew rapidly, it became impossible to sort out the problems with that method of law enforcement. Moreover, since the most of the transients were ignorant and illiterate, two groups of people developed. The strong subjugated the weak, and the wise tricked the ignorant. Also, there was an extreme case, in which a bad person used a dangerous weapon to forcefully seize property.

    The good people were deeply distressed by the bad people since there was no one to restrain them. Therefore, in July in the 24th year of Meiji (1902), important people in the community who were concerned with the situation held a meeting with the ordinary people, and they decided to reorganize the association. To eliminate the old, bad habits, they agreed to appoint a chairman and a vice-chairman, both without salary, and one paid superintendent. They also agreed to elect 15 honored assemblymen to work under them and deal with the problems and incidents that occurred through a process of council and judgement. The association tried hard to enforce the statutes. For example, they put criminals in a newly created detention center to try to get them to repent their crimes, and they sent people who had committed serious crimes back to the nearest police station in the homeland (Japan).

    On January 4th of this year, a dispute erupted two groups. The former head of the association tried to disrupt the association, by convincing many of the lumbermen and other workers to leave the association and come over to his side. The present head tried everything he could to settle the dispute through arbitration, but he failed and ultimately accepted their leaving. Thus, all the Japanese residents on the island divided into two groups of people. More than three fourths of the residents left the association and only one-fourth remained.

    The two groups became hostile to each other not only in business dealings, but also in everyday dealings. Though the association shrank and was less prosperous, they continued to maintain order and never succumbed to the majority opposition. Then on April 23th of this year, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) decided to establish a police substation on the island. That caused people to regret their actions, and they started applying to reenter the association one after another. The association accepted their applications and allowed all of them to become members again. On April 28th, the association eliminated the job of superintendent due to the establishment of the police substation.

    ReplyDelete
  96. Gerry,

    Of course, I think Kaneganese will answer soon but to follow are what I noticed;

    1)Hamada of Sekishuuwho (石州濱田)
    should be Hamada of Sekishu (石州濱田

    2) Please add the date ( at the following sentence: "This lead people to organize the so-called, Japanese Association of Commerce (日商組合会)"
    (Please add "In April, the 30th year of Meiji (1897)" )

    3) For example, was Wakita Shotaro(脇田庄太郎) a blacksmith?

    Yes, he was doing both of lumbering and smithery.

    ReplyDelete
  97. Thank you, Gerry

    As for Wakita, it says "製材兼鍛冶業" that means he had two occupation lumberer and blacksmith.

    And as for the word "passengers", I literally translated the word "渡航者". I think the meaning of the word was more like a "person who came over from Japan( 7-8 years ago )". I guess Japanese on the island basically think themselves as just a temporary stay even they stay there for a few years. So your translation is good.

    Other points we should change are...
    1) keyaki tree → zelcova tree
    2)Sekishuuwho(石州濱田) → Sekishu
    3)"there was no one there engaged in " → )there was no one there "who lived and" engaged in "
    4)Please add "In April, the 30th year of Meiji (1897)" to "and it lead people to organize the so-called Japanese association of commerce(日商組合会)

    This lead people to organize the so-called, Japanese Association of Commerce (日商組合会) in April, the 30th year of Meiji (1897),
    5)Therefore, in July in the "24th" year of Meiji (1902) → "34th"
    6)held a meeting with the ordinary people, and they "decided to reorganize the association". → "enacted the statute"(組合規約ヲ制定シ)
    7) On April 28th, the association "eliminated the job of superintendent" → changed the statute concerning regulations(取締規約)

    Thank you, Pacifist.

    ReplyDelete
  98. Thank you, Pacifist & Kaneganese. I have made the changes. By the way, I found that section very interesting since all of that was new information for me.

    Pacifist,

    I added the picture you sent me of Yozaburo Nakai to the post of his petition to the Japanese government. You can see it here:

    Petition to Incorporate Ryanko-to (Liancourt Rocks)

    ReplyDelete
  99. Pacifist, could you correct my translation? Thank you.

    Section 6 - Business Conditions
    It is very rare that Japanese and Korean on this island do business through cash transaction and they mainly barter the products and goods each other. Thus, both nationals substitute soya beans for cash, no matter the beans are big or small. (or no matter the trade is big or small.) The goods for inport to Korean residents are shirting, sheeting, Kai silk, yarn, oil, matches, sake, solt and small goods, though the demand by Korean is small and thus the profits are small. You can say that the only case other than that is, some trade of daily goods between Japanese. Among the export products, soya beans, broad beans, wheats, Phellodendron Bark and little bit of Ilex integra are from Korean, and others like lumber and marine products are from Japanese.

    Reference: Most zelkova trees close to the shore where it is convenient for carrying out were already cut off. Thus not only it is impossible to get a good quality log without getting into deep inside the forest, but also it cost extremely high if they convey those logs which was lumbered all over the place on the island to 道洞 and then it is not profitable anymore to export Keyaki trees to Japan. So since then, they started to lumber Japanese hemlock,Japanese White Pine trees, "tempo pear" etc .
    The list of the prices of the products and wages to workers and the import and the export are attached.

    By the way, in section 3, first two 漢字 can be read as "槻梅", but after I translated this section, I suspect it is a misprint for "槻、栂". "梅" means plum, but it sounds really weird since there are no meaning for "槻梅". If I am right, the first part of the section 3 should be "Zelkova trees, Japanese hemlock" insted of "(槻梅)?". What do you think?

    Gerry, I added Japanese articles and documents you and pacifist posted to the links.

    ReplyDelete
  100. Kaneganese,

    Good job.

    金巾 (kanakin) is a calico (or umbreached muslin).

    BTW Gerry, 天竺木綿 originally meant cotton imported from India, then it meant a sheet of cotton, so Kaneganese translated it as sheeting.

    ReplyDelete
  101. Kaneganese,

    I have no idea about 槻梅, sorry.

    ReplyDelete
  102. Thanks, pacifist.

    Gerry , please replace Keyaki trees in the sentence
    "道洞 and then it is not profitable anymore to export Keyaki trees to Japan."
    to "zelkova trees". And the "shirting" to "calico" as pacifist pointed out.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  103. Kaneganese & Pacifist,

    Thanks for the translations. I have edited Kaneganese's translation, but I will have to do Pacifist's translation tomorrow. I am too tired right now.

    Good night, everyone.

    ReplyDelete
  104. Gerry,

    Take your time. You can do it whenever you have enough time.

    ReplyDelete
  105. Gerry and Kaneganese,

    I visited the Wikipedia's "Liancourt rocks" site after a long time, and I found that it shows interesting photo of Ulleungdo:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:UlreungNASA.jpg

    I think this is interesting, 観音島 seems to be actually a horn.

    And they show a Korean map of Ulleungdo with Usando. (Gerry, we haven't seen this before, did we?)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tongkuk_chido.jpg

    Just for a fun.

    ReplyDelete
  106. Pacifist,

    Yes, that is a nice satellite picture of Ulleungdo. I first saw it about a month ago. As for the map, you must have missed my post at Maps 4 post in my "Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video" at Occidentalism. Here is the link to that post:

    "Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Maps 4"

    Anyway, thanks for reminding me of that satellite map since I wanted to post a link to it.

    ReplyDelete
  107. Gerry,

    I didn't notice it was the same map.Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  108. Pacifist.

    Good afternoon.
    I will give you a silly question.
    Because you are a native Japanese speaker, I ask you a question like this :


    ■竹島の領有権確立までに曲折
     ただ、1905年の竹島の領有権確立までには曲折があった。1870年に、朝鮮視察から帰国した外務省の佐田白茅は「竹島松島朝鮮附属ニ相成(あいなり)候(そうろう)始末」という表題の報告を行う。竹島(現在の鬱陵島)だけでなく、松島(現在の竹島)も、朝鮮領になったというわけだ。


     そして、地籍編さんのため、内務省から76年に竹島(現在の鬱陵島)に関する照会を受けた島根県は「山陰一帯ノ西部ニ貫付(所属)スベキ哉」と回答したものの、同省が最終的な判断を仰いだ太政官は、同島と外一島を「本邦関係無之」とし、日本領ではないとの認識を示した。外一島とは、現在の"竹島"とみられる。
     島名も混乱した。例えば、鬱陵島について、一時、内務省は竹島、外務省は松島と別々の呼称を使用した。鬱陵島は江戸時代から竹島と呼ばれてきたが、長崎の出島のオランダ商館付きの医師として来日し、医学をはじめ、日本での洋学の発展に貢献したシーボルトが欧米に伝えた日本地図で、鬱陵島を松島と記したのが原因だった。


    In that sentence, does "竹島" mean the Dokdo/Takeshima or the テツセミ島? I can’t figure it out.
    I am busy this day. So, I will read your answer this evening. Sorry and thanks.

    では。

    ReplyDelete
  109. Hi mc,

    In the text, 竹島 in the first part is Ulleungdo and 竹島 in the latter part is Liancourt rocks.(Please look at the following.)

     ただ、1905年の竹島(Liancourt rocks)の領有権確立までには曲折があった。1870年に、朝鮮視察から帰国した外務省の佐田白茅は「竹島松島朝鮮附属ニ相成(あいなり)候(そうろう)始末」という表題の報告を行う。竹島(現在の鬱陵島)(Ulleungdo)だけでなく、松島(現在の竹島)(Liancourt rocks)も、朝鮮領になったというわけだ。


     そして、地籍編さんのため、内務省から76年に竹島(現在の鬱陵島)(Ulleungdo)に関する照会を受けた島根県は「山陰一帯ノ西部ニ貫付(所属)スベキ哉」と回答したものの、同省が最終的な判断を仰いだ太政官は、同島と外一島を「本邦関係無之」とし、日本領ではないとの認識を示した。外一島とは、現在の"竹島"(Liancourt rocks)とみられる。
     島名も混乱した。例えば、鬱陵島について、一時、内務省は竹島(Ulleungdo)、外務省は松島と別々の呼称を使用した。鬱陵島は江戸時代から竹島(Ulleungdo)と呼ばれてきたが、長崎の出島のオランダ商館付きの医師として来日し、医学をはじめ、日本での洋学の発展に貢献したシーボルトが欧米に伝えた日本地図で、鬱陵島を松島と記したのが原因だった。

    This text is regarding the Matsushima in the 1870 document was Liancourt rocks, but in my opinion it was not.

    I am now investigating the 1870 document and its background, I will post the result in this Gerry's site in the future, so please wait for a while.

    ReplyDelete
  110. Pacifist,

    Pleas check my translation when you have time. Thank you.

    第八、交通
    本島本邦間ノ交通ハ毎年三月ヨリ八月迄ニシテ馬関(下関)、境、濱田、隠岐ノ西郷港ニ和船ノ往復スルコトアルモ九月以降ハ常ニ風浪激烈ニシテ航海スルコト能ハサルニヨリ交通皆無ノ姿ナリトス、依テ在留民ハ毎年三月初航ヨリ増員スルモ九十月ニ至レハ便船毎ニ帰国スルモノ多ク一昨年ノ如キハ僅ニ九十九名昨年ハ三百五十名越年シタリト云フ、然ルニ昨年ノ如キハ輸入米ノ少ジャルス為メ十二月頃ヨリ糧食ニ欠乏生シ在留民ノ大半ハ草根、木皮ニ大豆ヲ加ヘ常食トナシ非常ニ困難セルニヨリ本邦ニ便船ヲ特発シ食糧ノ輸入ヲ求メタリシモ冬季ノ航海ハ危険ナルヲ以テ之ニ応スルモノナク終ニ境港三光社ニ以来シ漸ク本年二月十六日汽船第二三光丸(総噸数百六十噸)ニテ食糧ヲ積来リ在留民ノ需要ニ充テタルモ少量ナルニヨリ引続キ三回食料輸入ナサシメタリト云フ

    Section 8 Transportation
    Transportation between Homeland(Japan) and this island is in operation from March to August every year, and the Japanese ships come and go to the ports of Shimonoseki(下関=馬関), Sakai(境), Hamada(濱田) and Saigo in Oki(隠岐ノ西郷). The strong winds and the high waves are always severe after September, thus there are absolutely no transportation since it is hard to make a voyage. So the population of Japanese residentsgrows in March, but many go back to Japan before September or October on the each ships. It is reported that there were only 99 people the year before last and 350 people last year who spent the new year on the island. Last year, there were not much imported rice and the food supply began to be in short around December, and most Japanese residents had a huge trouble and ate the soyabeans with grassroots and bark added. So they ordered the special transportation from homeland(Japan) to get the food imported, but the voyage in Winter was too dangerous and there were no one to answer the request. Finally, they asked Sankosha(三光社) and they dispatched the ship called DainiSankoMaru(第二三光丸)(160t) with food supply loaded on 16th Feb. this year at last. Those foods were distributed to the residents, but it was too little to meet the demand of the residents. So they requested food supplying dispatches three more times.

    本島ヨリ釜山及境濱田馬関等ヘ和船ニテ航海セハ約ニ昼夜半汽船三光丸ハ境港迄一昼夜ヲ要ス然レトモ常ニ強風多キニヨリ一ヶ月中出帆スルニ足ルヘキ天候ハ五六日ニ出テス又当港ヲ出帆スルモ進航中風位ヲ変シ強風吹荒ミ目的地ニ到達スルコト能ハスシテ多ク越前敦賀三国但馬丹後佐渡能登ニ漂着シ或ハ海上ニ於テ破船シ是迄無事ニ直航シタル者僅少ニシテ二航海ニ一回ハ必ズ何レニカ漂流シ実ニ危険ナリト云フ、又韓国本土間ノ交通船ハ皆無ニシテ在島韓民等協同以テ本邦和船ヲ雇入レ来島スルモノアリ本年四月十一日小宮萬次郎持船太平丸ハ韓人向雑貨及多数ノ韓人ヲ便乗セシメ釜山ヲ発シ五月一日当地ニ到着シ該船ハ今ニ陸上ニ曳上ヶ韓人ノ出荷ヲ待チ居ル
    (参考)本年五月中当港出入しタル船数及ヒ場所ハ左ノ如シ入港ノ和船ハ釜山ヨリ一艘長鬚(?)牟浦ヨリ二艘隠岐ヨリ五艘赤間関ヨリ一艘境ヨリ二艘合計十一艘ニシテ出港ノ和船ハ赤間関ヘ二艘博多ヘ一艘長鬚(?)牟浦ヘ一艘境ヘ汽船一艘合計五艘ナリキ

    If you make a voyage on the Japanese ship(和船) from this island to Busan, Sakai, Hamada or Shimonoseki, it takes about two whole days and a half (ニ昼夜半), whereas if you take steamship Sankomaru(三光丸), it takes whole day(一昼夜) to the port of Sakai, But the strong winds blow in many days, there are no more than 5-6 days which is good weather enough to make a voyage in one month. There are many cases that even the ships cannot reach to the destination but drift to the other places like Tsuruga(敦賀) or Mikuni(三国) in Echizen(越前), Tajima(但馬), Tango(丹後), Sado(佐渡) or Noto(能登). Or the ships sometimes go wreck. It is said that not so many ships safly reach to the destination directly, and it is dangerous because one out of two vayages, the ship definately drift to the unplanned destination. And since there are absolutely no transportational ships between Korean mainland, there are Korean residents on the island who hire the Japanese ships together to come to the island. On 11th April this year, Komiya Manjiro(小宮萬次郎)'s property ship, Taiheimaru(太平丸) loaded goods for Korean and Korean on board and left Busan, and it arrived here on the 1st of May. The ship is pulled on the shore and waiting for Korean unload the goods.
    (Reference) The numbers and the places of the ships come and go from this port in May is as follows. The incoming Japanese ships were, 1 from Busan, 2 from 長鬚(?)牟浦, and 5 from Oki, 1 from Shimonoseki and 2 from Sakai. The outgoing Japaneseships were, 2 to Shimonoseki, 1 to Hakata(博多) and 1 to 長鬚(?)牟浦 and 1 steamship to Sakai, and that makes 5 in all.

    ReplyDelete
  111. Kaneganese,

    Thanks again for your endeavour.
    The whole translation seems to me good.

    1) I think the word "スルコトアルモ" in the very first sentence was not translated.
    馬関(下関)、境、濱田、隠岐ノ西郷港ニ和船ノ往復スルコトアルモ

    In my opinion, it would be better if you take one of the following ways:

    (1) add "Although" at the very first sentence (Although transportation between...) and connect the first sentence with the second sentence with comma.
    (Although..., and Saigo in Oki(隠岐ノ西郷), the strong winds...)

    (2) just add "However," before the second sentence. (However, the strong winds and...)

    2) there is a misspelling in the Japanese text:
    境港三光社ニ以来("irai" must be in another Chinese character)

    BTW, kaneganese and Gerry,
    I read the text very interesting. In those days, Koreans didn't have own ships to make a voyage to Korean mainland.

    So this must be one of the evidences that Korean fishermen didn't come to Liancourt rocks by themselves. The fishermen or hired hunters may have been transported to Liancourt rocks on Japanese ships, if they needed to fish at the rocks. How could Korean people discover the rocks on Japanese ships?

    ReplyDelete
  112. I have just found that the sentence "アルモ一ヶ年ニ三回ニスキス、又夏期二至レハ全羅道三島地方ヨリ若芽採収ノ為メ二十艘内外来島スルコトアリト雖トモ荷物満載セハ何レモ本土ニ帰航シ其他航海用ニ適スル船舶ヲ所有スルモノナシ然レトモ" is missing in my Japanese, thanks to Pacifist.
    I am going to rewrite the translation.

    ReplyDelete
  113. Here is a new translation. A few sentences for the description of Korean were added.

    Section 8 - Transportation
    Transportation between Homeland(Japan) and this island is in operation from March to August every year, and the Japanese ships come and go to the ports of Shimonoseki(下関=馬関), Sakai(境), Hamada(濱田) and Saigo in Oki(隠岐ノ西郷). However, the strong winds and the high waves are always severe after September, thus there are absolutely no transportation since it is hard to make a voyage. So the population of Japanese residentsgrows in March, but many go back to Japan before September or October on the each ships. It is reported that there were only 99 people the year before last and 350 people last year who spent the new year on the island. Last year, there were not much imported rice and the food supply began to be in short around December, and most Japanese residents had a huge trouble and ate the soyabeans with grassroots and bark added. So they ordered the special transportation from homeland(Japan) to get the food imported, but the voyage in Winter was too dangerous and there were no one to answer the request. Finally, they asked Sankosha(三光社) and they dispatched the ship called DainiSankoMaru(第二三光丸)(160t) with food supply loaded on 16th Feb. this year at last. Those foods were distributed to the residents, but it was too little to meet the demand of the residents. So they requested food supplying dispatches three more times.
    If you make a voyage on the Japanese ship(和船) from this island to Busan, Sakai, Hamada or Shimonoseki, it takes about two whole days and a half (ニ昼夜半), whereas if you take steamship Sankomaru(三光丸), it takes whole day(一昼夜) to the port of Sakai, But the strong winds blow in many days, there are no more than 5-6 days which is good weather enough to make a voyage in one month. There are many cases that even the ships cannot reach to the destination but drift to the other places like Tsuruga(敦賀) or Mikuni(三国) in Echizen(越前), Tajima(但馬), Tango(丹後), Sado(佐渡) or Noto(能登). Or the ships sometimes go wreck. It is said that not so many ships safly reach to the destination directly, and it is dangerous because one out of two vayages, the ship definately drift to the unplanned destination. And since there are absolutely no transportational ships between Korean mainland, there are Korean residents on the island who hire the Japanese ships together to come to the island, but it is only 2 or 3 times a year. Though In winter, about 20 ships come to this island to collect the brown seaweed (wakame) from Samdo (三島) in Cholla Province (全羅道), all the ships are fully loaded and go back to mainland(without passengers?). Other than those ships(from mainland?), there are no one who own the ships adequate for making voyage. But on 11th April this year, Komiya Manjiro(小宮萬次郎)'s property ship, Taiheimaru(太平丸) loaded goods for Korean and Korean on board and left Busan, and it arrived here on the 1st of May. The ship are pulled on the shore and waiting for Korean unload the goods.
    (Reference) The ports where there were many ships come and go in May was as follows. The Japanese ships incoming were, 1 from Busan, 2 from 長鬚(?)牟浦, and 5 from Oki, 1 from Shimonoseki and 2 from Sakai. The outgoing Japaneseships were, 2 to Shimonoseki, 1 to Hakata(博多) and 1 to 長鬚(?)牟浦 and 1 steamship to Sakai and that makes 5 in all.

    ReplyDelete
  114. Pacifist, could you check my tanslation? Thank you!

    第九、気候
    本年五月中平均華氏六十五度ナリシモ七八月頃ニ至レハ日中百度内外ヲ昂降スルモ朝夕ハ七十度内外ニシテ冬期ハ二十度内外ニ降ルコトアリト云フ、然レトモ寒気ハ凛烈ナラスシテ本邦人初渡以来曾テ水甕ノ破裂セシコトナシト云ヘリ降雪ハ十二月頃ヨリ二月頃迄ニシテ毎年四尺以上七尺降リ積ルト云フ

    Section 9 - Climate
    The average temprature in May was 65 degrees Fahrenheit, but it goes up to around 100 degrees in daytime around July-August and stays around 70 degrees in morning and afterdark. In winter, it sometimes go down to around 20 degrees. But the coldness is not so fierece that Japanese had never witnessed the water jar crack since they first came. The snow starts to fall around December and it continues until around February. It is said that the snow lie from 1.21m(四尺) to 2.12m(七尺) in every year.

    ReplyDelete
  115. And this one, too.

    第十、伝染病
    本島ニ於テ天然痘、麻羅里亞熱ノ外曾テ他ノ疾病ニ罹リタルモノナシ然ルニ昨年?七月十九日赤痢患者一名特発シタルモ医薬ハ勿論消毒剤ノ用意ナカリシ為メ終ニ病毒ハ伝播シテ十四名ノ患者ヲ発生シ内二名ハ死亡シ残リ十二名ハ同年?八月末ニ至テ全治セシト云フ依テ本年五月十五日戸毎ニ大清潔法ヲ施行セシメタリ

    Section 10 - Epidemic
    There had been no one who was infected to epidemics except for smallpox and malaria on this island. but there was one case who was infected to dysentery on the 19th of July, last year. There was even no antiseptic needless to say medicines, thus the epidemic spread to people finally, infecting 14 of them. It is said that 2 of the patients had passed away, and other 12 had healed completely at the end of August. As a result, the regulation for massive cleanliness(大清潔法) was enforced.

    Gerry, I think I am going to skip the regulation part, if you don't mind. It is too long for me. But if you have anything you want to know about them let me know.

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  116. Kaneganese,

    Of course, I do not mind if you skip the regulations, which I assume are the regulations the Japanese Association of Commerce set up for the Japanese residents. However, is there anything in it that looks interesting?

    By the way, I have found "all" the translation you have done on this document to be very interesting. It fills in a lot of blanks spaces for me in relation to Ulleungdo and what was happening on the island in 1902. Non-Japanese speakers do not have this kind of information, so I think you have done something more worthwhile then you may realize. I realize it must have been a difficult project for you, but I hope you also got something out of it.

    Your translation tells me that Koreans on Ulleungdo did not have the means to travel to Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) in 1902, and they did not seem to have a name for the rocks at that time, either. It also does not mention anything about an island called "Seokdo" (石島), which supports my belief that Seokdo was just a catchall phrase in Korea's 1900 edict for all the small rocky islets around Ulleungdo.

    Thank you again for all of your effort, Kaneganese.

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  117. Gerry,

    Basically, the regulations are for Japanese Residents in order to maintain the welfare of them. But there are 2 rules concerning to Korean residents.

    第十條 本組合員ニシテ韓人トノ関係及取引上彼ニ対スル所為事過酷ニ失シ曳テ一般組合員ノ安寧秩序に障害アリト認メタルトキハ本組合員ハ極力干渉シ場合ニ依リ退韓ヲ命スヘシ

    第二十七條 韓人等ノ物件ヲ窃収シ又ハ畑物ヲ荒ラシ婦女子ニ対シテ猥褻に渉ル言語及所置セルモノハ情況ニヨリ退韓ヲ命スヘシ

    No.10 If the member of the association did harsh when they trade with Korean and it has possibility to bring the bad situation to peace and order to the member as a result, the member interferre as much as possible. And we should order the person to get out of Korea if the case is bad enough.

    No.27 If there are person who steal the Korean property, damage to their crops on farms or use filthy words or commit an act of obscenity to women and children, we also order the person to get out of Korea depending on the situation.

    I read this document somewhere before and I knew that Japanese residents on the island was trying to get along with Korean residents and vice varsa though Korean government was not totally happy about that. The document was interesting for me too, and I was really happy that I can now show the evidence that most Japanese on the island were just ordinary civilian not a looters like someone insists and actually trying to regulate those who commit crimes. And I am also happy that you find it this document very interesting, either. I hope Korean would feel the same.
    Anyway, I couldn't have done it if it was not for Pacifist and you. Thank you.

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  118. Kaneganese,

    I am glad you translating those two articles from the document because I think they are important. They help show that the Japanese on Ulleungdo were trying hard to get along with the Koreans there.

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  119. Kaneganese,

    The translation of the 9th and 10th chapters look no problem.

    Yes, as Gerry said, you did great job.

    Especially it was an important information that Korean people didn't have ships to make a voyage.

    I've heard thay they didn't do deep water fishing, only fishing around the island such as abalone catching and laver cropping.
    They didn't have their own ships to go deep water fishing, it is apparent that they didn't go fishing to Liancourt rocks on their own ships.

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  120. Kaneganese & Pacifist,

    Please check my corrections in the Transportation section of the 1902 document, especially the last paragraph talking about Japanese ships going to and from Ulleungdo. I translated 和船 as "a tranditional Japanese ship" and 長鬚 as a "whaling ship." Do you think that is correct?

    Also in the Transportation section, it was Komiya Manjiro(小宮萬次郎)'s boat went to Busan, but there were two dates given. I assumed that the first date was the date he left, and the second date was the date he returned. Is that correct? Anyway, please check my corrections for mistakes.

    Boy, that document was a big headache, wasn't it? But it's a good one.

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  121. Gerry,

    "I translated 和船 as "a tranditional Japanese ship" "

    That's correct, 和船 means sailboat in Japanese style:
    http://blog.canpan.info/wasenn-zufu/

    As to 長鬚 (which means long beard), I don't know. There is a name of whale シロナガスクジラ (blue whale, maybe spelt in Chinese letter as 白長須鯨, not 長鬚)...but ...

    Gerry, isn't there a possiblity that the whole "長鬚(?)牟浦" means a place name in Korea?

    As to 小宮萬次郎's ship:

    本年四月十一日小宮萬次郎持船太平丸ハ韓人向雑貨及多数ノ韓人ヲ便乗セシメ釜山ヲ発シ五月一日当地ニ到着シ該船ハ今ニ陸上ニ曳上ヶ韓人ノ出荷ヲ待チ居ル

    This text says that on 11th April this year Taihei Maru (小宮萬次郎's ship) loaded various things and Korean passengers and left Busan and arrived here on 1st May.
    It took three weeks...too long.
    I haven't slightest idea about this.

    The text I am reading now says that Japanese sailboat took only 4 hours from the northest part of Tsushima to Busan. Only 4 hours, not 4 days.

    So I can't say exactly but I wonder the first date maybe the date they borrowed the ship. They may have spent a few weeks to load various things.

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  122. Gerry,

    I found the writing 長鬚鯨 (Nagasu Kujira, English name:blue whale) in some old documents, but as far as I saw the word 長鬚 has not been used as a whaling ship.

    But there was a document which used the word 長鬚 as 長鬚鯨 (blue whale):
    "鯨を銛で突く数は、勢美で五百、座頭で二百、長鬚で百五十 ..."

    ReplyDelete
  123. American managed whale hunting from 1840's.mostly they hunt Right Whale(背美鯨),and they had mostly annihirated them in the Sea of Japan because too much hunting.

    Norway style whale hunting system, it can available to hunt Blue Whale(長須/
    長鬚鯨),so whale hunting rivival after 1889 mostly by Russia.

    和船(Japanese boat/ship) seems to be "隠岐Oki style "Japanese fishing boat.Oki-style boat is very taugh structure toward hard current.On the other hand, Korean use weak-structure boats(I forgot the name,later I will chk)because they just operated seaweed or abalone nearby the water of Ulluengdo.

    This taugh fishing boat were spread into Koeran peninsula via Ulleungdo's Japanese ship builder from Oki island.

    Also Squid catching syste in Ulleungdo prevails from Oki Island, But Squid-catching system was Sado-style.Japanese started Squid Catching from 1903,and koeran started from 1907 or 1908.

    ReplyDelete
  124. Thank you, Pacifist & GTOMR,

    I found the problem. There is an area in called 長鬐 (Janggi), and in that area, there was place called 牟浦, so 長鬐牟浦 would be Janggi's Mopo, which would be referring to Korea's Pohang area.

    It seems the Chinese characters were not 長鬚, but were 長鬐, which looks very similar.

    I am still not sure how to handle the Taihei Maru sentence because three weeks sailing time is too long.

    ReplyDelete
  125. Toadface,

    I deleted your post because you posted under the name "Annonymous" after I warned you not to. You may repost it under one of your many nicknames if you like.

    ReplyDelete
  126. Anonymous17/6/07 15:33

    Nah........bye!!

    ReplyDelete
  127. anonymous or toadface,

    Please come back and let us hear your opinion, with your name toadface or wedgie or whatever.

    ReplyDelete
  128. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  129. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  130. Northern China and Korea Maritime Report. Maritime department of Ministery of Transport,Communication Affairs,Mar 1904.
    北清及韓国海事取調書,逓信省管船局(M37=1904.3)


    Around 1901 and 1902 there are another doccument that says there are Seals north sea of 鬱陵島 to 威鏡道 area.They hired western and Japanese-Western in Ogasawara. From the doccument ,it cannot confirmed there are in Ullunegndo or Liancourt Rocks, but it says that the hunting area on the ocean between 鬱陵島 to 威鏡道.

    I forgot before some article confuse Sea lion and Fur seal,but there is some possiblity there was multiple in the same ara.

    一 遠洋漁業
    朝鮮近海に於ける遠洋漁業は膃肭臍猟捕鯨及明太漁なりとす

    膃肭臍漁 朝鮮近海の膃肭臍棲息区域は江原道鬱陵島以北威鏡道一帯の沖合にして其季節は三月初旬より回遊し始め五月頃最も多く六月下旬より其の遊跡を減す此獣は元と薩口合X連島の東岸なる海豹島邊に住するものなれとも性質上春季の暖温を求め白令海峡より日本海の西面に注ける還流に駕して来遊せるものにして其潮流と朝鮮海峡を経過し来る暖流と混交する邊水温三十八度乃至四十五度の処て度として棲息回泳し暖流の膨大となるに随て六月頃より漸次故地に節遊するものの如し又白令海「プリビイロブ」群島に棲息せるもの来遊することあるも極めて稀なりと云ふ本漁場は明治三十四(私註:1901)年、東京佐野渡所有猟船海王丸が発見したるものにして同年には六百七十四頭を捕獲せしに依り遠近相伝呼し翌三十五年(私註:1902)には本邦及欧米の猟船続々出漁し本邦船のみにても十八艘其捕獲数六千四十三頭本年は十九艘にして五千百八十四頭なり是等猟船の船長及運転士は本邦人にして丙種運転士免状を受有し船長は船長は漁猟長を兼ね銃手も多くは本邦人なるもの小笠原島帰化人六十七名及び欧米人約二十名乗組居れり艦長は測量衡の心得あるもの少なく多くは測量士を雇へり----三十四年及三十五年に朝鮮海へ出猟したる本邦猟船表は第百五号表に示せり

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  131. Before Nakai's seals hunting on Liancourt Rocks 1903, there was some boom of enterprise for fur seal hunting around the coast area from 鬱陵島 to 威鏡道 on 1901-1903.They hunt so many seals then Liancourt Rocks be focused on seal hunting thought the seals on LKR has already known by Japanese from 1890's.

    The report of Inspector Fugenji to Korea. Yokohama Custom department.
    1904.01. 普賢寺監視韓国出張調査報告書 / 普賢寺達雄述,横浜税関, 明37.1. - (税関月報附録 ; 第15)より

    三月至る五月 膃肭臍 威鏡道沿岸より鬱陵島附近

    膃肭臍 明治三十四年の春に当たり帝国水産会社は其の海王丸をもって元山の沖合い数百里の間を探見せしめし結果道海中におっとせいの浮遊するを認め同年四五月の間に六百数十頭を銃猟したるがX来同業者之を聞知し昨年の如きは米国船も亦此方面に出猟し内外船の捕獲せし総数六千四十四頭に上り漁業上本道海上に一生面を開くに至れり…….

    Enterprize of Northern Korea.
    1905.07北韓の実業 / 宮崎勇熊著,輝文館, 明38.7

    膃肭臍 韓名、水狗子
    此獣の棲息区域は、江原道鬱陵島以北、威鏡道一体の沖合いをすれど-----きは、威鏡道にして、馬養島及び新昌を距る七十海里、明川郡海峡を距る七十海里許の沖合い一体とす。季節は三月初旬より回遊し始めて、五月頃最も多く、六月下旬よりXXXの遊跡を減少す、思ふに此獣は、薩は連島に附属セル「コムマンダー」島邊に棲むものなれども、日本海の西南に注げる潮流に駕して、遊泳し来るものにして、其遊X、朝鮮海峡を経てくる暖潮と相混交するの邊、即ち水温三十八度度乃至四十度の処をXとして棲息回遊し、暖潮の影響愈膨大なるに従ひ、漸々故地に復帰するものの如し、而して此獣の当沿海に産するとは、去る三十四年の頃露国捕鯨運搬船長日本人某の発見するところにかかれり、其翌年は早くも遠近伝呼ぶして、出漁するもの多く、本邦及び英米を合わせて、出漁の船数約二十隻、其捕獲数六千余頭の多きに及びたりと云う、但し当沿海に産するものは、多方面の産に比すれば、頗る長大にして、価格も復高貴なれば、此漁業葉今後ますます有望なりと所謂つべし

    海驢 韓名 水狗ムルコスー 江原、威鏡両道の沿岸に普く棲息すれども、鬱陵島の南東「ヤンコ」島を持って最とす、其毛皮は能く浸水を防ぐを以って、雨具を製するのに適し、又、戯りて縄となすべく、歯は彫刻の材料と為すべし、其他陰茎は海豹と同じく、韓人の渇望する所なりと云ふ、これ又有利の業たるに背かざるものなり

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  132. Mr.Sugino Yomei suggested Seokdo
    石島 on the 黄海道大同江沖ノ席島(Seok-Do)
    was recorded by Japanese as follows;

    Totssem「トツセム」
    Totssschem 「トツチヱム」

    I just thought, Tessemi can be recorded Seokdo more than Daetsom.

    Just check the doccuments here.

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  133. Mr.Gerry,
    Maybe I asked it befoe. but please explain one more time,with phonetic symbols as follows
    Daetsom
    Jukdo
    Seokdo

    In Korean, there are some 竹島(not liancourt rocks) nearby Korean peninsula and how is those pronunsations? Daetsom or Jukdo, which is typical?

    And how do you think the relation between Tessemiテッセミ and Totseomトツセム?

    I noticed that it is similar case that 石島 is shown up only two records and Tessemi is also shown up in the record two times as far as we knwe, and after that it has disapper from the records.

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  134. GTOMR,

    Korea uses both "Sino-Korean" (Chinese-based Korean) and "pure Korean" words. "Jukdo" is the Korean pronunciation for the Sino-Korean word 죽도 (竹島). "Daetsom" is the Korean pronunciation for 댓섬, which is the pure Korean word for "bamboo island."

    "Seokdo" is the Korean pronunciation for the Sino-Korean word 석도 (石島), which means "rock island." The pure Korean word for "rock island" is 돌섬, which is pronounced as "Dolseom."

    ReplyDelete
  135. I found the Japanese Map which they discribes 観音島 as 島牧 and the strait as 観音崎.
    The map is in 1900, the survey of ULleungdo with 赤坂 and La Porte?

    The map was attached on the report from 赤塚正助 ,the staff of Japan Consulate in Busan.

    The post here"1902 Ullengdo report by Japanese", based on the information above, I guess.

    I wanna read orininal doccument of this written in Japanese, who can I read it? tell me anyone?

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  136. dear gtomr,

    The map is quite interesting.
    However, may I ask you about the name of the small island just off from the cape (観音崎, this must be a cape, not a strait)?

    In around 1900, Japanese used to write sentences from right to left. So I think that the name of the small island should read as 牧島, which may pronounce as "Maki-jima", " Maki-shima" or "bokutou".
    Am I wrong?

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  137. GTOMR,

    That is a very, very interesting map and document. I will try to post it as soon as I can.

    By the way, there is a link to the original document and map in the post. You can see the original HERE.

    Pacifist & GTOMR,

    In Korean, 島牧 is pronounced as "Do-mok. The word "mok" (목) is the pure Korean word for "neck," so "Do-mok" literally means "Island Neck." As I am sure you remember, in 1882, Lee Gyu-won referred to Gwaneumdo as 島項, which is the Sino-Korean word for "Island Neck," so what seems to have happened is that by 1900, the Korean residents on Ulleungdo had started using the pure Korean name for "Island Neck" instead of the Sino-Korean. Then it seems that the Japanese on the island or the Japanese inspector, himself, just chose the character 牧 to imitate the sound of the pure Korean word for "neck."

    I think this document is evidence that that the 石島 in the 1900 Imperial Edict was not referring to Gwaneumdo (觀音島) nor to any specific island, but was only a catchall word used to include all the other rocky islets around Ulleungdo.

    I think this is a very important map because this map was made during the inspection that led up to the 1900 edict.

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  138. Thank you, GTOMR

    I've browsed the document and I agree that this is very interesting document.

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  139. Gerry,

    Thank you for the link to the original document. Is it possible to save this document?

    As GTOMR already commented above, Japanese does sound 牧 as "Moku", but it is extremely unusual.

    "Japanese pronunsation of ”牧ノ”are assumed that
    1.Makino(post by Kaneganese,this pronunsation is most credible)
    2.Boku-no/"MOKU-no"/Mako-no (some irregular pronunsation)"

    If 赤塚, Japanese, was the one who had chose to use Chinese character in order to express Korean pronounciation "Moku", I think he would have had used other ordinary character. If he was, then there must be more strong reason to use 牧, like Korean already used it, or there are something that has some relationship with grazing land or officer which are the meaning of "牧".

    By the way, I haven't read all of 禹用鼎's report yet. Did you? I think his report is more important than Akatsuka's since 禹 was the one who committed to make 1900 Imperial Edict when it comes to 石島. If Kwanundo was called 島牧 or similar as well in his report, it is a good evidence to support your theory, yes.

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  140. Kaneganese,

    I have already saved the document and map and plan on posting them after I translate the Korean translation of the Japanese.

    Regardless of who came up with the character 牧 to represent the pure Korean word for "neck" (mok), isn't it possible that the character was chosen because it WAS rarely used and, therefore, would not have been confused with the Sino-Korean name for the island? In order words, maybe characters rarely used in normal speech were used to represent the sounds in other languages?

    If you mean the "Uldogi" (鬱島記), I do not remember any neighboring islands being mentioned in the translation I read, but I do not remember if I read it all, either.

    By the way, I wonder if the Japanese document and map are just copies of the originals? Or does Korea have the originals for some reason? I am asking because I have not seen the document or map posted on any Japanese Web site.

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  141. As far as I know, the Akatsuka赤塚's reprot is not on other websites.

    They add some old doccument and translation day by day.Last time I had checked the Kyuujangak site ,maybe last year, I couldn't find the Akatsuka赤塚's map and report on 1900.

    As far as I know, 鬱陵記 has no mentioned about other anjunctive islands. Im not sure if I read "all" of 鬱陵記 contents or not an if Korean disclosure all the parts or not.

    I wonder The Korean emperror or other goverment staff can understand what 禹用鼎's report if there are no attached map of Ulleungdo?

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  142. Gerry,

    "In order words, maybe characters rarely used in normal speech were used to represent the sounds in other languages?"

    "牧" itself is a very common character in Japanese, but pronouncing "Moku" is rare. If you write "島牧", Japanese would pronounce it as "Tou-Boku" 99 out of 100. But when it comes to proper noun, it is common to adopt irregular pronounciation, espeially in the case the names had been used since ancient times in Japan. This is only my speculation, but I assume it was Korean who were using this particular Chinese character and Japanese only recorded it, from this point of view. That's why I'm interested in 禹's report which Korean claims they lost but only a part of it was open to public.

    By the way, is it possible that this "島牧" only indicate that Kwanundo was not regarded as an independant island, but just a long cape or something?

    As for this document, it looks like being Xerox copied. I guess it is in Archives of the official document in Japan, though I haven't seen it before either.

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  143. By the way, I've noticed some mistakes of the new copied map on the kyujangak site. I think they should be more careful when they copy the old document. Too careless.

    1. Direction (Takeshima is on East in original, but it is on South.)
    2. A few rocks are added.
    3. 空島 is smaller compared to the original.
    4. It looks like "牧島", not "島牧".

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  144. Dear evrybody,

    May I point out again that 観音崎 (Kan-non-zaki) must be a cape, not a strait in Japanese language?
    The word 観音崎 in the map was certainly written to indicate the cape - the remaining process after the tip of the original cape was cut off as an island.

    So 牧島 or 島牧 can't be an "island neck". As everybody can see, it was drawn as an island, not a peninsula. And as I wrote before, the word 牧島 seems to be right as Japanese used to write words from right to left in those days.

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  145. Pacifist,

    I first thought it is "牧島" just like you when I looked traced version, but it looks like "島牧" on the original map Gerry linked above. It is one of Seoul Uni's mistakes, apparently. I sincerely hope them to stop making such easy mistakes. It is too confusing.

    Japanese's labelling island as "島牧" sounds extremely wierd to me. He wrote "亀尾" as well which is impossible to be pronounced as "gumi" in Japanese. Thus it is natural for us to consider it wasn't Akatsuka who had chosen "牧" to express Korean pronounciation, but Korean taught how to spell in Chinese to him. I personally believe Akatsuka depicted one independant island which local Korean usually recognized as a streach from cape (island neck) and wrongfully labelled Kwanundo as "島牧" which should be labelled between the cape and Kwanundo.

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  146. There are many place name of Mok牧 ,although I just thought 牧mok is rare pattern e.g. 横浜本牧,and so on.
    牧もく(mok)Place of name)地名 on Google

    The original doccument surely wrote 島牧 (see:P13)

    The place of name list northeast of Ulluengdo,nearby Sokbo area around 1900
    After 1900, there occured name of ”観音”?

    Gerry,by the way, 空島 is Gondo in Korean pronunsation? I heard 孔巖 is called Gong-am?
    and how to call 高在浦 and 臥建失(maybe Wadari) in Sokbo area?

    ReplyDelete
  147. Kaneganese,

    Thank you.

    Yes, 島牧 (Do-mok - Island Neck) is a strange name for a Korean island since islands in Korea usually end in 島, not begin with it. Actually, the name suggests a "cape" rather than an island, but in his 1882 report, Lee Gyu-won did refer to Gwaneumdo (觀音島) as an island, which he called 島項 (Dohang - Island Neck). Also, as you know, there are two Korean maps from the 1800s that also refer to Gwaneumdo as an island called "Small Udo" (小于島) and "Small Gando" (小干島), so I think we have to assume that 島牧 (Domok) was an island, especially since Akatsuka (赤塚) drew it as an island.

    Yes, I also noticed the mistake with the direction indicator, but I think there may be some other mistakes with the placenames. For example, a 1905 Japanese map of Ulleungdo showed 昌洞, not 呂洞; and 停石浦, not 高在浦. Also, I think it is 臥達里(吏), not 臥建失; 窟岩, not 窟石; and 山幕谷, not 山蕗谷.

    GTOMR,

    空島 is pronounced as "Gong-do" in Korean, and 孔巖 is pronounced as "Gong-am."

    高在浦 is pronounced as "Gojae-po," but as I wrote above, I think they may have misread 停石浦, which is pronounced as "Jeong-seok-po."

    臥建失 is pronounced as "Wa-geon-sil," which suggests that the person who copied the Chinese characters from the map did not know much about Ulleungdo geography. As I wrote above, I think it should be 臥達里, which is pronounced as "Wa-dal-ri."

    ReplyDelete
  148. >高在浦 is pronounced as "Gojae-po," but as I wrote above, I think they may have misread 停石浦, which is pronounced as "Jeong-seok-po."

    I think 高在裏Gojae-po and 亭石浦Chon-sok-po are completely different charactor and pronunsation.

    I remember ,but Im not sure the source that Gwaneumdo had called other name of Ggak-sae- seom.

    Someone explain it Ggak-sae is local name of Brown_Booby, but I doubt it is something strange and it is also similar with Ga-ji-do可支島,

    ReplyDelete
  149. 1902年(明治35)10月16日付『通商彙纂』(234号)について、去年5月ごろ、あるところに書いた文章を一部修正の上引用します。ここでの議論と重複するところがありますが、ご批判をお待ちします。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    私は、この1902年『通商彙纂』は、非常に重大な意味を持つ文献だと思います。実は、東京の「外交史料館」に残されている、
    「文書番号6-1-6-10『釜山領事館報告書』その2」
    という文献が、この『通商彙纂』(234号)のもとの史料です。

    欝陵島には、1902年から、釜山領事館から警察官が派遣されて駐在していました。半年交代で派遣される4人の警察官の第一陣として、3人の巡査とともに赴任した西村銈象警部の報告です。1902年(明治35年)4月28日に着任し、約1か月後の5月30日付けで釜山領事館に報告をあげています。当時の釜山領事だった幣原喜重郎から、外務大臣小村寿太郎へ報告があがったのが6月27日。これが10月16日付け『通商彙纂』(234号)となって印刷されたのです。一部が省略されていたり、若干の語句の修正はありますが、活字になっている『通商彙纂』の文章は、この西村警部の報告そのものです。

    この報告では、リャンコ島について、
    「又、本島ノ正東、約五十海里ニ、三小島アリ。之ヲ、リヤンコ島と云ヒ、本邦人ハ松島と稱ス。」(句読点追加)と書いています。「本邦人ハ松島と稱ス」という記述から竹島=独島のことに間違いありません。

    この報告が、リャンコ島について「約五十海里」(約90キロ)という、非常に正確な位置を記していることに注目したいと思います。
    鬱島郡守・沈興澤が、4年後の1906年の報告に、「百里外(または百里許)」と書いていたのと比べると(韓国の1里は0.4キロ、すなわち百里は40キロ)その把握力に差があります。やはり、海軍を持っていた日本との差が大きかったのだと思います。

    そして、「欝陵島に拠点を置く行政主体」が、「リャンコ島」(=竹島・独島)について具体的に語った、確実な文献史料としては、これが初めてではないかと思うのです。

    もちろんこれまでも、日本側から鬱陵島に渡った人々の竹島の記録としては、それこそ江戸時代からたくさんあります。一方韓国側も、新羅の于山国から朝鮮王朝実録まで、たくさんのことが、書かれてはいます。

    しかし、1880年代以降、実際に鬱陵島に派遣された韓国側の官僚たちによって、この島の実態について「具体的な言及」は、全くなされていないのです。
    李奎遠の報告(1882)にも、禹用鼎の報告(1900)にも、「独島」は一言半句も言及されていません。またその直前に欝陵島を探検した官僚たちによっても、欝陵島の地図が報告されているとのことですが(宋炳基『欝陵島と独島』2005)、その中にも于山=松島=独島の記述はないのです。

    1900年、禹用鼎と合同調査の赤塚正助報告でも、附属地図の「空島」が「孔岩」であるにせよ、ないにせよ、ここには「石島」も、「独島」も、「リャンコ島」も、「松島」も、書かれていないことを確認しておきたいと思います。

    赤塚正助一行は、この報告を書くにあたり、地元のインフォーマントの情報をまとめたものと思われます。彼らは島監の裵季周の家を根拠地に調査をしていますから、この地図を作るにあたっても、情報提供は島の主だった人々から受けていると思われます。もちろん、この時の合同調査の主目的は、伐木問題や日韓人の間のトラブルでしたから、漁業や周辺島嶼については関心が薄かったものとは思われますが、当時の鬱陵島人の意識の中には、鬱陵島の属島としてのリャンコ島=独島=竹島はなかったことも、この地図からうかがえるのではないかと思います。


    さて、西村報告=『通商彙纂』について詳しく見ます。この史料については、かつて姜萬吉氏が京郷新聞に紹介し(1996年2月15日)、最近、玄大松氏(『領土ナショナリズムの誕生』2006)が、そのまま引用する形で、竹島の日本領土編入が「秘密裏に行われた」とする根拠の一部として紹介しています。姜萬吉氏は新聞投稿のせいか史料を注記していませんが、玄大松氏は原資料から日本語に起こし『通商彙纂』と注記してくれたために、原文に当たることができました。私は、この1902年『通商彙纂』は、非常に重大な意味を持つ文献だと思います。

    姜萬吉氏は「1902年10月10日に釜山駐在在日本領事館が本国へ送った鬱陵島事情報告書」と書き、玄大松氏もそのように引用していますが、この原文は見つかりません。
    『官報』には1902年12月11日に、西村報告をもとにしたと思われる鬱陵島の人口についての簡単な報告はありますが、10月10日づけの「釜山駐在在日本領事館の本国への報告書」はありません。
    ちなみにこの『通商彙纂』(1902年10月16日 234号)では、「領事館報告」という形ではなく、日付もなく、「韓国鬱陵島事情」というタイトルで、文責は「外務省通商局」となっています。(当時の通商局長は、たぶん、杉村濬です。)

    目次をみると、鬱陵島の地勢、在島韓民の状況、物産、船舶停泊場、本邦在留人概況、商況、漁業の状況、気候、伝染病、組合規約について報告しています。
    このうち、「第七 漁業の状況」として、次のように書いています。

    本島ノ漁業季節ハ例年三月ヨリ九月迄ニシテ、収穫物ハ鮑、天草、海苔、若芽ノ数種ニ過キス。
    漁業者ハ多ク熊本ノ天草、島根ノ隠岐、三重ノ志摩地方ヨリ渡来ス。而シテ韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様ナレト、毎年、全羅道三島地方ヨリ多数ノ漁夫等渡来シ、海岸ニ満生スル若芽ヲ採収セリ。本年ハ、天草隠岐ノ漁業者、都合水潜器船八隻、道洞ヲ本拠ト定メ、又志摩ノ蛋船二隻、天草ノ海士舟一隻ハ、苧洞ニ仮小屋ヲ構ヘ、何レモ全島ノ海岸ヲ巡漁セルモ、今年ハ昨年ニ比シ、余程不漁ナルニヨリ、利潤多カラサル見込ナリト云ヘリ。
    又、本島ノ正東、約五十海里ニ、三小島アリ。之ヲ、リヤンコ島と云ヒ、本邦人ハ松島と稱ス。
    同所ニ多少ノ鮑ヲ産スルヲ以テ、本島ヨリ出漁スルモノアリ。然レトモ、同島ニ飲料水乏シキニヨリ、永ク出漁スルコト能ハサルヲ以テ、四五日間ヲ経バ本島ニ帰航セリ。


    この、本島=欝陵島からリャンコ島にアワビを求めて出漁しているのが、韓国人か、日本人かは、この文面だけでは不明です。しかし、この報告には、「韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様」とありますから、韓国人ではなく、日本人であった可能性が高いと思われます。ただし、日本人の場合、天草・隠岐・志摩などと日本国内の出身地を明記しており、「本島ヨリ出漁スルモノ」という記述だけからは、日本人ではない可能性も残しています。

    そしてこれは、まだ中井養三郎がリャンコ島で本格的にアシカ漁を始める1年前のことです。中井が、はじめてリャンコ島にて「日章旗を岩上に翻した」のは、翌1903年(明治36年)5月のことでした。(奥原碧雲『竹島及鬱陵島』1907、55p)

    また、この報告には、「第二 在島韓民の状況」として、欝陵島の「各集落ごとの人口」が、韓国人・日本人それぞれについて詳細に記されています。4月に赴任した警察官4人が、実際に島中の集落をまわって調査したのではないかと思われます。
    欝陵島で集落ごとの人口を記したものとしては、5年前の『独立新聞』(1897年4月8日)にのった、かなり詳しいものがありますが、足し算すると数字が合わず、不正確です。欝陵島で、正確な集落ごとの人口が把握され、記録されたのは、この西村報告が初めてなのではないでしょうか。「近代的統治」とは、良くも悪くも、かくなるものかな、と思わせます。

    警察官が配置され、情報収集がより精密になり、それによって、リャンコ島についても書かれ、報告されるようになったのではないでしょうか。この史料が、リャンコ島が「鬱陵島の人間の認識に入っているのが確認できる」最初の文献史料という所以です。ただし、リャンコ島は、あくまで「漁業の状況」の中にあり、「鬱陵島の地勢」には入っていません。ここではテツセミ=竹島=竹嶼、島牧=観音島、三本立、俵島が紹介されています。


    さてしかし、ここで問題は、この調査記録が、リャンコ島について「韓国鬱陵島事情」というタイトルのもとで記述していることです。あくまでも漁業のことではありますが、それが「隠岐」の事情ではなく、「韓国鬱陵島事情」として書かれていること。そして、それを「外務省通商局」が、オーソライズしてしまっていること。これはまさに「当時、日本では、リャンコ島を、欝陵島に関係するものとして認識していた」という事例を、またひとつ、決定的に加えてしまっていることになるのではないかとも思われます。

    この認識は、
    葛生修亮『韓海漁業指針』(1904年1月4日発行。ただし、最初の、雑誌『黒竜』第2号への発表は1901(明治34)6月)から、
    岩永重華編『最新韓国実業指針』(『朝鮮協会』、1904年8月7日刊 山座円次郎序文)、
    田淵友彦『韓国新地理』(1905年9月9日刊 博文館)と続いて行く、韓国江原道・欝陵島の項目における「ヤンコ」の記述とも軌を一にしています。


    さらに、日本領土編入後の1905年7月31日付の有吉明釜山領事の報告「鬱陵島現況」でも、同様な認識を、公式な文書にしています。
    『通商彙纂』9・3(明治38年50号) 在釜山帝国領事館報告
    『官報』 9・18 釜山駐在帝国領事有吉明の報告
    (このふたつは、同文です)
    ここでは、中井養三郎たちが行っていたと思われる「ランコ島」の「とど漁」について記していますが、領土編入をまたがって、まったく同様に「鬱陵島現況」として「ランコ島」について記述しています。

    先述のように、姜萬吉氏はこの後者をもって、日本政府が独島の日本領土編入を秘密にしていたので、釜山領事すらもその事実を知らず、「竹島」とせずに「ランコ島」としている、と書いていますが、これは考えにくい解釈だと思います。鬱陵島を直接担当する釜山領事館に領土編入を教えないことはありえないことだと思われるからです。これは、日本海海戦の東郷平八郎長官が、電文に「竹島」と打たずに「リヤンコールド岩」と打ったのと同じだと思います。日本政府が、東郷長官に領土編入を「秘密にしていた」とは、考えられないからです。

    「秘密」云々よりも、この二つの『通商彙纂』は、鬱陵島を担当する日本の行政当局が、「リャンコ島」(ランコ島)を、鬱陵島が担当すべきテリトリーである、と認識していること示す文献であることが重要だと思います。

    そして、非常にアイロニカルなことだと思いますが、この報告が、もしも「鬱島郡守よって」、「大韓帝国の内部」あてに、送られたものだったとしたら、これは、立派に「韓国による実効統治」をあらわす文献にもなりうるということです。

    しかし、実際には、鬱島郡守による統治を、いわば「追い越して」しまって、日本側の警察官憲が「鬱島郡」の管轄区域をより詳しく把握してしまっていること。これが、1902年の鬱陵島や竹島=独島をめぐる両国の統治状況であり、それを物語るのが、この『通商彙纂』という史料の価値だと思います。

    ReplyDelete
  150. matsuさん

    "ご批判"はむずかしいかもしれません。私はここまで詳しくありませんので、驚いています。ありがとうございます。

    ”赤塚正助一行は、この報告を書くにあたり、地元のインフォーマントの情報をまとめたものと思われます。彼らは島監の裵季周の家を根拠地に調査をしていますから、この地図を作るにあたっても、情報提供は島の主だった人々から受けていると思われます。もちろん、この時の合同調査の主目的は、伐木問題や日韓人の間のトラブルでしたから、漁業や周辺島嶼については関心が薄かったものとは思われますが、当時の鬱陵島人の意識の中には、鬱陵島の属島としてのリャンコ島=独島=竹島はなかったことも、この地図からうかがえるのではないかと思います。”

    ちょうど、赤塚の地図の"島牧"について日本人が韓国人の発音を聞いて当て字で書いたのか、韓国人が漢字を赤塚に教えたのか、議論していたところでした。おそらく、後者ですね。ありがとうございました。ところで、これはどこに書かれているのでしょう?よろしければ教えて下さい。

    ”この、本島=欝陵島からリャンコ島にアワビを求めて出漁しているのが、韓国人か、日本人かは、この文面だけでは不明です。しかし、この報告には、「韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様」とありますから、韓国人ではなく、日本人であった可能性が高いと思われます。ただし、日本人の場合、天草・隠岐・志摩などと日本国内の出身地を明記しており、「本島ヨリ出漁スルモノ」という記述だけからは、日本人ではない可能性も残しています。”

    この“では無い可能性”を根拠に“である”と断定する韓国人が学者の中にも多いので、驚きます。ただ、常識的には”漁業の状況”で、”韓国本土間ノ交通船ハ皆無ニシテ在島韓民等協同以テ本邦和船ヲ雇入レ来島スルモノアスルモノアルモ一ヶ年ニ三回ニスキス、又夏期二至レハ全羅道三島地方ヨリ若芽採収ノ為メ二十艘内外来島スルコトアリト雖トモ荷物満載セハ何レモ本土ニ帰航シ其他航海用ニ適スル船舶ヲ所有スルモノナシ”とある所を見ると、鬱陵島の韓人が主体となって鬱陵島から松島に出漁して鮑をとっていた可能性は、これら一連の文書を読む限り、1902年の時点ではほぼないと思われます。

    “「秘密」云々よりも、この二つの『通商彙纂』は、鬱陵島を担当する日本の行政当局が、「リャンコ島」(ランコ島)を、鬱陵島が担当すべきテリトリーである、と認識していること示す文献であることが重要だと思います。”
    “鬱島郡守による統治を、いわば「追い越して」しまって、日本側の警察官憲が「鬱島郡」の管轄区域をより詳しく把握してしまっていること。これが、1902年の鬱陵島や竹島=独島をめぐる両国の統治状況であり、それを物語るのが、この『通商彙纂』という史料の価値だと思います。”

    全く同感です。外務省がこうした鬱陵島の日本人、そしておそらく韓国人の現竹島での活動を正確に把握していた事は、国際法の論議にも影響する事になるかもしれませんね。当時の大韓帝国の地図や政府文書に現竹島と断定できるものが全く現れず、こうして日本側の記録にばかり現れるのも、韓国の中央政府がその存在、実態を正確に把握していなかった事をあらわしています。

    ReplyDelete
  151. kaneganeseさん ありがとうございます。

    まず、訂正です。
    「李奎遠の報告(1882)にも、禹用鼎の報告(1900)にも、「独島」は一言半句も言及されていません。またその直前に欝陵島を探検した官僚たちによっても、欝陵島の地図が報告されているとのことですが(宋炳基『欝陵島と独島』2005)、その中にも于山=松島=独島の記述はないのです。」という部分の、「于山=」は、カットしなければいけませんね。
    官僚たちは、「于山」については、実にたくさんの地図・記録を残していることは、このサイトが、何よりも実証していることですから。
    ただし、それは、「于山=松島=独島ではない」ことの証明においてですが。(笑)

    さて、お尋ねの、
    「赤塚正助一行は、この報告を書くにあたり、地元のインフォーマントの情報をまとめたものと思われます。彼らは島監の裵季周の家を根拠地に調査をしていますから、この地図を作るにあたっても、情報提供は島の主だった人々から受けていると思われます。」
    これはどこに書かれているのでしょう?
    についてですが、
    これは、すでにgtomrさんが、"1900 Japanese map of Ulleungdo"の3番目のコメントで書いておられるように、

    機密京第一七號
    小官、五月三十日(略)翌三十一日着上陸。
    翌日ヨリ三日間、島監・裵季周ノ邸ニ於テ、受命調査事項ニ就キ、雙方立會、日本人及島監ヲ取調ヘ、餘日ヲ以テ山林其他ノ雜項ヲ調査シ、
    によったものです。

    合同調査の主目的は「伐木問題や日韓人の間のトラブル」という部分は、この公使館記録の中の、当日か、あるいは、その前後の報告によったものだったと思います。


    この、インフォーマントの韓国人が、果たして「島監・裵季周」ただ一人だけだったのか、あるいは、他の韓国人からも調査をしたのかは、厳密に言えば、この文章からは不明です。しかし、一行は、韓語に堪能な「警部・渡邊鷹次郞」を通訳として同行しているので、ほかの韓国人にも調査をして聞いた、と考えたほうが良いと思います。
    また、この地図が、たとえ欝陵島在住の「日本人」の手になるものであったとしても、日本人は韓国人と離れて暮らしているわけではないので、その元になった情報を含め、当時島に住んでいた日本人・韓国人の認識が、この地図には凝縮されていると考えてよいのではないかと思います。
    この地図は、これまでに見られた朝鮮の官僚たちの地図とは、ずいぶん形態が違っています。よって、あらかじめ携えていった地図をもとに、この報告書を作成しているのではなく、みずからが手書きで、現地で当時の情報を図示してあらわしているという点が、非常に貴重なのだと思います。

    それにしても、この「空島」は、いったい何なんでしょうね。

    こうなると、赤松と一緒に調査を行った禹用鼎の『鬱島記』に地図がないのが残念です。この『鬱島記』は、すでに原本は失われてしまったとも聞いていますが、なにしろ、この禹用鼎の報告をもとに「勅令41号」が同じ年の10月には出来上がるわけですから。


    さて、次に
    “二つの『通商彙纂』は、鬱陵島を担当する日本の行政当局が、「リャンコ島」(ランコ島)を、鬱陵島が担当すべきテリトリーである、と認識していること示す文献であることが重要だと思います。”
    という部分は、実は「国際法の論議」からすれば、むしろ韓国側に有利、日本側に不利なことであると考えています。

    あえて「付属する」と書かずに「関係する」と書きましたが、「竹島(鬱陵島)があってこその松島(竹島・独島)」という、両者を一対とする考え方は、日本側に不利なのです。
    これまでも「この2つの島が、何色に塗られているか」という議論がたくさんありましたが、どちらにしても「同じ色」で塗られているのは、結局は日本側に不利だと思います。

    なぜなら「鬱陵島」自体について、日本は、江戸幕府も明治政府も、結局は「韓国領」だと認めてきました。そこで、竹島(鬱陵島)は韓国領だけれども、松島(竹島・独島)は日本領なんだ、と言うときには、この二つは「別物なんだ」という議論をしなければならないわけです。日本側主張のポイントは、「二つは別物」というところにあり、韓国側主張のポイントは「この2島はいつでも一緒」という点にあります。

    ところが、「2島は別物論」は、意外と実例が少ないのではないかと思います。幕末の「八右衛門事件」の時と、明治初期の渡辺洪基の『松島之議』ぐらいではないでしょうか。
    しかも前者は、最近、池内敏さんによって、別物論で「言い訳」をしたのに、結局認めらずに、八右衛門は死刑になってしまったじゃないか、と言う論文が出ています。

    日本人は、伝統的に「竹島・松島」を一対のものとして考えてきました。
    「鬱陵島に付属してリャンコ島がある」という考え方のほうが、内藤正中さんが言うように、当時の日本人の「常識的理解」としては、現場では強かったのだろうと思います。中井養三郎自身も、そう信じていてからこそ、東京に行ったわけですから。

    そして、それをひっくりかえしたのが、まさに肝付兼行だったわけです。実はその理論を、わたしたちは、まだしっかりとは理解していないようにも思います。


    しかし一方で、韓国人の側はというと、リアンクール岩をまったく知りませんでした。知っていたとしても、それを利用したり、経営したり、統治したり、図示したり、占領したりすることは、全くありませんでした。それはまさに、このサイトの地図史料・文献資料が、ひとつひとつ、明らかにしてきていることだと思います。

    東側の日本から竹島(鬱陵島)にアプローチしていく場合、その途中で必ず松島(竹島・独島)は視野にはいります。ところが、西側の朝鮮半島からアプローチして来る場合には、鬱陵島がゴールそのものなわけですから、さらにその先の小さな岩にまで行く必要性、経済的理由は、まったくなかったのです。実は、この簡単な事実こそが、すべてなのだと思います。

    1日以上もかかる、水もない岩に、わざわざアワビをとりに出かける韓国人漁民は、いませんでした。(鬱陵島はアワビの宝庫でした。)そして、遠く新羅の時代から、中井養三郎がアシカ猟をはじめるまでは、この海産物のほかには、この岩の経済的価値はなかったのです。

    ReplyDelete
  152. matsuさん

    1900年の調査の様子が随分明らかになったようです。ありがとうございます。禹用鼎の『鬱島記』が全文読めないのは本当に残念です。もっとしっかり捜して欲しいですね。

    “あえて「付属する」と書かずに「関係する」と書きましたが、「竹島(鬱陵島)があってこその松島(竹島・独島)」という、両者を一対とする考え方は、日本側に不利なのです。
    これまでも「この2つの島が、何色に塗られているか」という議論がたくさんありましたが、どちらにしても「同じ色」で塗られているのは、結局は日本側に不利だと思います。”

    “ところが、「2島は別物論」は、意外と実例が少ないのではないかと思います。幕末の「八右衛門事件」の時と、明治初期の渡辺洪基の『松島之議』ぐらいではないでしょうか。”

    日本はこの2島を一方が他方の附属、というよりもセットのように考えてきたと思います。それはやはり鬱陵島への渡航の際に発見し、中継点として主に利用して来た事か大きいでしょう。ただ、他にも、隠岐の松嶋と記した「竹島図説」や現竹島を単独で描いた伝村川家所蔵の松嶋絵図、その他の竹島単独で書かれた竹嶋絵図に現竹島が描かれていない事、そして松嶋での単独漁を村川家主導で行っていた事を考えると、やはり、附属島として考えていたとは考えれられないと言うのが私の考えです。この点も当ブログで随分論争しました。また、「八右衛門事件」の高札、1877年の太政官指令ともに松嶋の事が議題の過程においてその名前が上がっているにもかかわらず、結論として松嶋という固有名詞が含まれませんでした。公文書に固有名詞が明文化されなかったことの意味は大変大きいと思っています。

    ほぼ仰られた事の繰り返しになりますが、“日本側からは竹島/Liancourt Rocksより鬱陵島がその先にあるので竹島を日本が発見するのは自然で、空島政策で鬱陵島でさえ渡航禁止であり、漁業が軽視されていた農本主義の李朝朝鮮において、豊潤な鬱陵島の92km先にある竹島へわざわざ渡海して戻ってくる事は非経済的で、当時の朝鮮人が例えその存在に気がついていたとしてもわざわざ出かけようとしなかったことはこれまた自然である。”と言うのが私の考えです。鬱陵島から竹島が見えていたから朝鮮人は当然渡海していたはずだ、と言うのは現在の感覚からの推測にすぎず、92kmも離れた鬱陵島よりずっと収穫の少ない、そして何より飲料水の無い竹島にわざわざ行くのは命がけであり、政府派遣の官吏か冒険家でない限り無かったのではないでしょうか。実際その形跡さえありません。唯一の記録である張漢相の鬱陵島事蹟にも"ある"としか書いてありません。大谷、村川両家はこの点商人としてしっかりソロバンをはじいていたと思います。古文書からもそれが窺えます。この点も随分韓国側と論争しました。日帝時代以前の韓国の実情について理解している韓国人は少ないようですね。

    “そして、それをひっくりかえしたのが、まさに肝付兼行だったわけです。実はその理論を、わたしたちは、まだしっかりとは理解していないようにも思います。”
    この当たりの事情をもっと解明して行きたいですね。内藤正中氏は、肝付の測量専門家としての実績と、1894年の朝鮮水路誌に朝鮮の東限が明記されていた事を全く無視しています。残念です。1905年当時の世界的常識として韓国の領土の東限が東経130度35分~58分であったとは明らかなのに。

    大変有意義な論議をありがとうございます。これからも一つ一つ資料を検討して行きたいと思っています。よろしくお願い致します。

    ReplyDelete
  153. 追記

    “二つの『通商彙纂』は、鬱陵島を担当する日本の行政当局が、「リャンコ島」(ランコ島)を、鬱陵島が担当すべきテリトリーである、と認識していること示す文献であることが重要だと思います。”という部分は、実は「国際法の論議」からすれば、むしろ韓国側に有利、日本側に不利なことであると考えています。”

    この点に関しては、多少疑問があります。1902年の『通商彙纂』は地理の項にリャンコ島の言及がありません。漁業の項にのみあります。1903 「韓海通漁指針」、1904 「最新韓国実業指針」 と、開拓、ビジネス関係の日本人向け書物にのみ江原道の項に記載されている事も考えると、竹島が隠岐より鬱陵島を基地として出漁する方が経済効果が高かったことから、鬱陵島の附属島と言うよりもむしろ、鬱陵島在住日本人の経済活動の場所としての認識があった、と言う事をあらわしているにすぎないと思います。大韓帝国政府が日本人のリャンコ島の産物にたいして課税しようとした形跡がありませんでしたよね。

    明治政府がリャンコ島が当然鬱陵郡の管轄であると考えていたなら、1906年7月13日の皇城新聞記事“鬱島郡의 配置顛末”にあるように統監府が鬱陵郡の附属島嶼等を確認することは無かったのではないでしょうか。

    ReplyDelete
  154. 訂正

    “開拓、ビジネス関係の日本人向け書物にのみ”

    これは正確ではありませんでした。1905「韓国新地理」(田淵友彦)がありますね。

    ReplyDelete
  155. Kaneganeseさん 

    こんにちは Matsuです。
    日本語ですみません。

    葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』(1903)、田渕友彦『韓国新地理』(1905)、岩永重華『最新韓国実業指針』(1904)について、前と同様、あるところに書いたものを修正したものです。
    いずれも、韓国の江原道の鬱陵島のところに「ヤンコ」が書かれている本です。
    ご参考になれば幸いです。

    その前に、
    このサイトのあちこちを、あらためてゆっくり読ませていただきました。史料を、ひとつひとつ、きっちりと伝えようとする姿勢に、あらためて尊敬を覚えました。時々日本語があるのでほっとします。英語で書くと、完全武装で、しゃっちょこばっているようで大変です。スペル・ミスと間違いだらけの、つたない自分の英語が、文字として残っているのを見て、ちょっと元気がなくなっています。


    GTOMRさん、pacifistさん、あらためてこんにちは。

    英語で書いて、いきなり「ため口」になってしまい、新参者なのに、失礼があったと思います。
    おゆるしください。

    私が『朝鮮教会史』について投稿したのは、ちょうど、赤塚正助の地図と報告に焦点があたっていたころでした。
    赤塚の地図は、ちょうど1年前くらいに、最初に影印版のほうを国会図書館で見つけて、この「空島」はいったい何じゃい、ひょっとして「独島」? と思いつつ、この資料はまだあまり紹介されていませんね、と議論をしていたところでした。
    外交史料館のほうの史料もまもなく見つけていたので、お役に立てば、と思い参加しました。

    あらためて皆さんのコメントを読んで、非常にレベルの高い、しかし、わかりやすい議論をしていると思います。今後も参加させていただければと思います。その時は頑張って英語で書きます。

    では、本文です。もともとはメールです。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    田渕友彦『韓国新地理』(1905博文館)や葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』(1903黒龍会)は、前から気になっていた資料なので、国会図書館で見てきました。

    驚いたことに、田渕友彦『韓国新地理』の「欝陵島」の部分は、葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』の該当部分を、一部省略・簡略化しながら、ほとんどそのまま、丸写しにしたものです。

    当時は、著作権なんぞという観念はなかったんだなあ、と思った次第です。
    となると、田渕の『韓国新地理』は、一次史料としての価値は、ほとんど無いように思います。

    さらに、この本は、認識が混乱しているというか、編集が杜撰です。本文では「江原道」のところに欝陵島と「ヤンコ島」をについて記述しながら、巻頭地図では「竹島(リヤンコールト岩)」と載せており、ヤンコ島の名前はありません。もしかしたら、原稿が出来上がってしまってから、巻頭地図に最新情報を入れたのかもしれません。しかも、地図は「韓国全図」というタイトルですが、その中に「竹島(リヤンコールト岩)」という、日本領になってからの名称を入れているのも杜撰です。

    また、ヤンコについて、葛生の『韓海通漁指針』で、「韓人及び本邦漁人、之をヤンコと呼び」(123p)とあるのを、田渕『韓国新地理』では、「俗に之をヤンコ島と称す」(308p)としていますが、もともとが「まる写し」だとすると、1905年段階でも本当に「ヤンコ島」と称していたのかどうか。一次史料としての価値は微妙です。

    一方で、この本は、明治38年(1905)9月9日に、東京で有数の出版社である博文館から発行されており、「竹島(リヤンコールト岩)」の名前入りの地図が堂々とのっていることから、
    日本政府は、竹島の領土編入を、1906年に鬱島郡守沈興澤に告げるまで「秘密にしていた」、という韓国側の議論には、大きな反証になると思います。

    そこへいくと、葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』(1903 1月4日発行 黒龍会)は、
    全体が著者自身の実際の踏査に基づいており、一次史料として非常に貴重な本だと思います。
    当時の欝陵島の様子が、生き生きと書かれています。でも、葛生自身は、実際に欝陵島まで行ってはいないのではないか、とも思えます。それは、欝陵島の項目については、~と云ふ。~と云ふ。という表現があいついで出てくるからです。

    ヤンコ島について「欝陵島より東南の方約三十里」という距離感は、1里4キロで120キロと思えますから、1902年『通商彙纂』(実は西村警部報告5月30日付)の五十海里(90キロ)に比べると落ちます。

    実は、この欝陵島とヤンコ島を記述した「沿海地理」の部分は、以前に雑誌『黒龍』に掲載した「韓国沿海事情」に増訂加除を加えたもの、とあり、『黒龍』2号(明治34 1901 6月発行)に、ほぼ同文がのっています。
    よって、この報告に載っている時間の基準、「韓人及び本邦漁人之をヤンコと呼び」という時期は、本が発行された1903年ではなく、1901年6月の直前を基準に考えられると思います。

    葛生自身、『韓海通漁指針』の前書きで、明治32年(1899)2月、初めて韓国に渡り、33年(1900)34年(1901)に実地調査をして、34年(1901)の8月中旬から11月上旬に『韓海通漁指針』を書いたとあります。そうすると、初めて韓国に渡った1899年2月から、雑誌刊行の1901年6月までの間に、この「ヤンコ」という表現を得ていることになります。

    また、葛生は「ヤンコ島」の項目で、数年以前、山口県の潜水器船が、鮑(あわび)、海鼠(なまこ)、石花菜(てんぐさ)を求めて出漁し、無数の海馬(あしか)にさまたげられて漁にならなかったことを書き、数年以来、大分県の鱶(ふか)縄船が出漁していることを書き、昨年春季、実際に帰航した漁夫から取材したことを書いています。この「数年以前」「数年以来」や「昨年春季」の基準は、雑誌出版の1901年6月です。すなわち昨年春季は1900年春ということになります。また、韓人については、漁の記述はありません。

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    しかし、遅くとも1901年の段階で「ヤンコ」として竹島=独島を認識していた「韓人」がいることは、やはり重要です。

    1900年6月の赤塚=禹用鼎の合同調査の段階では、竹島=独島の存在は欝陵島に住む人間の認識の中には入っておらず、1902年4月の、日本人警察官駐在所の設置により、欝陵島の把握が格段に深まり、リャンコ島も欝陵島に住む人間の認識下に入ってきた、と考えていました。しかし、葛生によれば、1901年の「数年以前」から、山口県や大分県の日本漁民が「ヤンコ島」に出漁していたわけです。
    これらの人たちは、欝陵島の港を根拠地にしていたことも考えられます。それは、この1902年10月16日『通商彙纂』(=5月30日付西村警部報告)に、日本人漁民が欝陵島の港を根拠に漁労活動をしていることが書かれているからです。
    もしかしたら、こうした接触が、欝陵島の韓人たちにも「ヤンコ」の存在を知らしめていたのではないでしょうか。しかし、欝陵島には「韓人漁夫ハ皆無ノ有様」(西村報告)でしたから、直接「ヤンコ島」に出向いていって漁をしていた韓人はいなかったのではないかと考えられます。

    欝陵島に韓国人漁民がいないことは、古く、有名な
    1894(明治27)2・18付『山陰新聞』の「朝鮮竹島(=欝陵島)探検」(松江 佐藤狂水)に「漁業は絶えて従事せるものなく、全く知らざるものの如し」とあり、

    また、最近出た『欝陵郡誌』(2007・2・28刊 欝陵郡庁)(原文韓国語)に、
    「開拓民が農業移民だったために、漁業に従事することを嫌がるこのような行動のため、独島をはじめとする欝陵島海域の漁業は、欝陵島漁民の主導下では行われず、日本漁民が主導するようになり、それが結局、1905年日本が独島を無住地として自国の領土に編入するという不幸の原因を提供することになったと見なければならない。」とあることからもうかがえます。(第二編 歴史 近代 197p)(「無住地」は「無主地」の誤り)

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    すみません。おじゃまとは思いますが、あまりに面白いので続きを書かせて下さい。

    なんと、一次史料の宝庫と考えた
    葛生修亮 『韓海通漁指針』(1903黒龍会)の、欝陵島のくだりは、
    その3分の1ほどが、
    恒屋盛服 『朝鮮開化史』(1901博文館)からの引き写しでした。

    著作権も何もあらばこそ、明治の人にとって、本を書くということは、ひとの文章を、ことわりもなく引用することと同じだったのでは、と思えるほどです。

    欝陵島は、金剛山の一支脈。山の高さ四千尺。貝原益軒が日本の所属と言ったこと。
    明治十五六年の頃、本邦人某工人を派して伐木に従事、韓廷が抗議。金玉均、白春培、徐敬秀。
    貨物売却の時、口銭百分の二を官に納れ、木材には船一隻に百両を納れ、以て公然の密貿易。
    ・・・これらが、全く同じです。

    恒屋盛服の『朝鮮開化史』は、1901(明治34)1・29刊ですから、葛生修亮としては、同年6月の雑誌『黒龍』掲載には、十分に引用が可能でした。

    やれやれ、という感じですが、しかし、大きな違いは、恒屋盛服 『朝鮮開化史』が
    「大小六島アリ、其中、著名ナルヲ、于山島(日本人ハ松島ト名ク)、竹島ト云フ」
    という有名なくだりを書いていること。

    ソウルにいた恒屋盛服は、文献を漁渉すれば、当然、『東国文献備考』や『萬機要覧』に行き当たったので、「于山島(日本人ハ松島ト名ク)」と書いたのでしょう。

    ところが、『朝鮮開化史』から多くを引用している葛生修亮が、「于山島」という地名には全くふれていません。そして、その代わりに、漁師たちによる実際の名称である、「ヤンコ島」になっているのは、非常に注目されます。また葛生が「大小六島」説を否定していることも、何か現地のインフォーマントからの新情報があったのかもしれません。

    そして、葛生修亮のインフォーマントになった韓人が、この段階で(1899年2月から1901年6月まで)、島の名前を、「石島」とも「独島」とも言い得る可能性があるのに、そちらを使わずに、「ヤンコ」とのみ、言っていることにも注目されます。

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    さて、先日来の「引用の連鎖」ですが、
    笑うべきことに、
    恒屋盛服 『朝鮮開化史』(1901博文館)も、これまた、
    かなりの部分が、あの有名な
    『皇城新聞』1899(明治32) 光武3・9・23
    の「欝陵島事況」のパクリでした。

    金玉均、白春培、徐敬秀とならんでいるのを見て
    はて、どこかで見たな、と思ってみたら、案の定でした。

    『朝鮮開化史』の
    大小六島アリ、其中、著名ナルヲ、于山島(日本人ハ松島ト名ク)、竹島ト云フ。
    という有名なくだりも、
    『皇城新聞』の、これまた有名な、
    其附属した小六島中に、最著者は、于山島、竹島。
    から来ているんですね。

    最後に、もうひとつ、葛生『韓海通漁指針』(1903)120pに、
    欝陵島について「支那人之れを松島と呼ぶ」と書いてあり、さすがは葛生、中国資料にもあたっていたか、と思いつつ、はて、中国では、当て字で「タケシマ」というのはあったけれど、「松島」ははじめてだなあ、と思っていたら、もと版の雑誌『黒龍』には、なんと「本邦人は松島と呼ぶ」とありました。
    確かに「本邦」と「支那」は、字の形は似ていますが、日本と中国では大違い。なんとも罪作りなミスプリだなあ、と思った次第です。

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    さて、今日は、外務省政務局長の山座円次郎が序文を書いている
    岩永重華編『最新韓国実業指針』(1904年8月7日刊)についてです。

    「江原道」の項目の中に欝陵島とヤンコ島が書かれており、序文を寄せた山座円次郎が、ヤンコ島=独島は韓国領だと認識していたことを示すものだ、とされています。

    この本は、『韓国実業指針』という名前の通り、いろいろな情報をまとめたガイドブックのようなもので、実地にあらためて調査をしたというよりは、いろいろな材料をもとに編纂したものであることは、その例言にもあります。

    「朝鮮協会」という団体が1902年の3月に出来て、その肝いりで、ハンディな産業紹介を目指したもののようです。

    ところが、この本では、欝陵島について、「支那人之を松島と呼ぶ」(293p)と記述しています。あれっと思いました。
    「支那人之れを松島と呼ぶ」とは、前回書いたとおり、「本邦人」とあるべきところを「支那人」とした、葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』(1903)の、出版の際の誤植です。
    とすれば、この記述は、『韓海通漁指針』を引いている、ということになります。

    そう思ってみると、ずいぶんコンパクトにはなっていますが、『韓海通漁指針』と同じ言い回しが随所にあります。江原道の一番最初のところに、欝陵島とヤンコ島が出てくるのも同じです。

    こうなると、テキスト・クリティークの上からは、むしろ、「有難いミスプリ」です。
    前に指摘した田渕の『韓国新地理』ほど引用は露骨ではありませんが、この『韓国実業指針』の記述も、『韓海通漁指針』から引用したものと思われます。

    つまり、この1904年段階での、「ヤンコ島」という名称それ自体も、欝陵島との関連性も、江原道に属するということも、ただ『韓海通漁指針』の認識を、そのまま受け継いで書いているのではないでしょうか。その意味で、この資料も、一次資料としての価値は低いと思います。

    こうして、田渕友彦『韓国新地理』1905も、岩永重華編『韓国実業指針』1904も、
    いずれも葛生修亮『韓海通漁指針』1903の認識を、そのまま移している、ということになります。
    「ヤンコ島」という名称についても、一見、いろんな人がそう呼んでいたように思えますが、ひょっとしたら、葛生修亮が得た「ひとつの情報」が、「こだま」のように広がっているだけかもしれません。

    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
    しかし、ここで、問題なのは、この本には、外務省政務局長・山座円次郎ばかりでなく、
    「朝鮮協会」の日下義雄理事長など8人が序文をよせており、なおかつ朝鮮協会理事・国友重章閲とあって、いわば「朝鮮協会」という、当時の朝鮮問題専門家たちが、「江原道に属して、欝陵島とヤンコ島がある」という認識を、オーソライズしてしまっていることです。
    しかも、1904年8月という、中井養三郎が申請を出す、まさに直前の時期に、です。

    この本は、8月に1版がでたあと、同じ年の9月に2版、10月に3版と続いて出ており、(「朝鮮協会会報」10、1905年4月・69p)
    「購買者の重(おも=主)なるものは、府県庁、官公署、郡市役所、学校、公共団体、商業会議所、銀行、会社、貴衆両院議員等なり」とあります。もちろん、手前みそでもありましょうが、影響力はそれなりに大きかったと思います。

    こういうこともあって、当時の日本人の「常識的理解」として、欝陵島にくっつく形でヤンコ島を理解していた、とも言えるのでしょう。そしてこれは、竹島(欝陵島)あっての松島(竹島=独島)という、日本人の伝統的理解にも添うものでしたから、受け入れやすかったのだろうと思います。
    ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・

    ポイントは、次の2点です。

    ①「ヤンコ島」という名称について、一見、いろんな人がそう呼んでいたように思えますが、ひょっとしたら、葛生修亮が得た「ひとつの情報」が、「こだま」のように広がっているだけかもしれません。
    「ヤンコ島」という名称それ自体も、欝陵島との関連性も、江原道に属するということも、ただ『韓海通漁指針』の認識を、そのまま受け継いで書いているのではないでしょうか。
    その意味で、一次資料としての価値は低いと思います。

    ②(しかし)「朝鮮協会」という、当時の朝鮮問題専門家たちが、「江原道に属して、欝陵島とヤンコ島がある」という認識を、オーソライズしてしまっていることです。
    しかも、1904年8月という、中井養三郎が申請を出す、まさに直前の時期に、です。

    ご批判をお待ちします。

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  156. matsuさん

    matsuさんのような方にお誉め頂けるのは、大変光栄です。できるだけ客観的な観点で資料を検討するように心がけていますので、どうか、これからもご協力頂ければ幸いです。素人ですので、間違っていたら訂正することを信条にしています。ご批判も大歓迎です。ただ、お読みになっていただいて分かるように、私達日本人は単なる資料研究のみを行っているのではなく、非論理的な反日活動に対抗し、日本の正しい姿を英語で伝える事にも同時に心がけています。


    さて、1901年の葛生修亮『黒龍』については、いずれもっと詳しく調べてから記事にしたいと思っていたので、このような書誌学的検討をしていただけると、大変参考になります。(yahooでご活躍のyabutarouさんがやはり書誌学的知見をお持ちでしたので、大いに助けていただいたものです。最近彼の姿を見ないのは大変残念です。)

    葛生修亮 『韓海通漁指針』(1903黒龍会)が恒屋盛服 『朝鮮開化史』(1901博文館)を引用し、
    岩永重華編『最新韓国実業指針』(1904年8月7日刊)と田渕友彦『韓国新地理』』(1905博文館)が葛生修亮 『韓海通漁指針』(1903黒龍会)をさらに引用した、と言うことですよね?大変興味深いです。そして、恒屋盛服 『朝鮮開化史』(1901博文館)自体が『皇城新聞』(1899)「欝陵島事況」のパクリである、と。(まあ、これは大体推測できていましたが。)「支那人之れを松島と呼ぶ」のくだりなど、気がつきませんでした。なるほど、そういうことでしたか。

    ご質問の件に関して、
    ①“「ヤンコ島」という名称について...その意味で、一次資料としての価値は低いと思います。”
    →了解いたしました。念頭において各資料を検討したいと思っています。ただし、ご指摘のように1901年という早い時点で、もしくはさらに遡って、韓人がヤンコ島という日本語の呼び名で、さらに石島でも独島でもない名称で呼んでいた、という事実は大変重要です。というのは、すでにケロロ軍曹(あえて誰とはいいませんが)のような人たちは、1901年の時点で韓国人が既に竹島/Liancourt Rocksの存在を知っていた、と言う事実のみをもって領有権の主張に濫用するので、それを防止する為にもしつこくしつこく言い続けなければならないのです。

    ②1903 「韓海通漁指針」(東経130度35分)、1904 「最新韓国実業指針」(東経130度35分)、1905「韓国新地理」(東経130度58分)と、すべて韓国の東端を竹島/Liancourt Rocksを除外して定義しています。さらに「朝鮮協会」は、民間の組織で、上記の書物は官製ではないあくまで民間の出版物です。
    これらの事から総合して、竹島/Liancourt Rocksは、当時の鬱陵島ひいては朝鮮在住日本人にとっては、韓国領土としての認識ではなく、日本主体の鬱陵島経済圏としての認識であったと思います。このギャップに気がついたのが結果として中井達であり、当時の日韓関係における領土意識、特に一般民間人におけるそれは、えてしてこのような曖昧なものであったのでしょうか。いずれにせよ、江原道の鬱陵島とヤンコ島へ日本人が漁へ出かけていたのは事実で、一方韓国人がイニシアチブを持って出かけていた事実は皆無である以上、領土の主張と言う観点においては、韓国側の論拠は大変薄いものであると言わざるを得ません。

    竹島問題を通じて痛感する事は、所謂”専門家”の言うことは必ずしも真実ではなく、しかし、国家や自治体の言うことは例え真実ではなくても既成事実として認識されてしまう、と言うことです。

    という訳で、“専門家”が“オーソライズ”したと仰る事に関しては、例えそれがどう言う内容であっても仰るほどの重要性は見出せません。matsuさんの意見は、拡大解釈といえないでしょうか?また、それが1904年であっても官吏が序文を書いていても、同じです。(東端を竹島/Liancourt Rocksより東として明記していたなら話は別ですが。)領土紛争に関して重要なのは、主権国家もしくはそれに準ずる自治体の領有意識でしょう。本件の全体像を知る上では大変重要で興味深い事実であることには変わりませんけれど。事実は事実として、それ以下でもそれ以上でもありえません。

    答えになっていないかもしれませんが、この辺が私がここで英語で投稿や論争する事を単なる資料の調査研究にとどまらず、世界に向かって分かりやすく、領土問題ひいては、日韓関係の真実について戦略的に世界に広報する事をも念頭においている事から来る、matsuさんとの姿勢・認識の違いかもしれません。そうご理解頂ければ幸いです。

    何も"失礼"なことはありませんので、ご遠慮なくご発言下さい。大変貴重なご意見を頂けると期待しています。英語に関して、ここではネイティブでない人間の英語を笑う人は、それだけでバッシングを受けます。お互い、へたくそな英語でどんどん語り合いましょう。間違ったり理解できなかったりする時は尋ねればいいのです。

    ReplyDelete
  157. kaneganeseさん

    深夜の対応、ありがとうございました。

    元気が出ました。

    ReplyDelete
  158. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  159. どなたか。
    宜しければ、
    1902-04-29 釜山の海関士彌須氏の鬱陵島報告
    について、写経お願いいたします。

    また、

    1902.06.24日付 皇城新聞、オットセイの生息情報

    について、写経お願いいたします。
    特に、鬱陵島及??最多
    ??の部分がなんであるか教えてください。

    Anyone please type the Two Hwason simun in the above links
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete